Information-theoretic approach to detect directional information flow in EEG signals induced by TMS
This study evaluates two methods for effective connectivity analysis, symbolic transfer entropy (STE) and vector autoregression (VAR), by applying them to TMS-EEG data. In terms of the consistency of results from different experimental sessions, STE is found to yield robust results irrespective of sessions, whereas VAR produces less correlation between sessions. Furthermore, STE preferentially detects the directional information flow from the TMS target. Taken together, our results suggest that STE is a reliable method for detecting the effect of TMS, implying that it would also be useful for identifying neural activity during cognitive tasks and resting states.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an evolving diagnostic alternative to contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and fluorescence angiography for the evaluation of vascular diseases. Microbubble contrast material allows imaging of blood flow in microvasculature beyond the resolution of standard imaging techniques and demonstrates potential for the evaluation of tissue perfusion. Several authors have investigated the application of CEUS in the evaluation of myocardial or skeletal muscle perfusion and tumor characterization.
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Thomas R. Morrison, Praveen Kulkarni, Xuezhu Cai, Sade Iriah, Dipak Aggarwal, Shi-Fang Lu, Neal G. Simon, Dan Madularu, Craig F. FerrisAbstractArginine vasopressin (AVP) is a chemical signal in the brain that influences cerebral vascular resistance and brain water permeability. Increases in AVP contribute to the pathophysiology of brain edema following traumatic brain injury (TBI). These effects are mediated through AVP V1a receptors that are expressed in cortical and subcortical brain areas. This exploratory study characterizes the ef...
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Kenneth F. Valyear, Benjamin A. Philip, Carmen M. Cirstea, Pin-Wei Chen, Nathan Baune, Noah Marchal, Scott H. FreyAbstractAnimal models reveal that deafferenting forelimb injuries precipitate reorganization in both contralateral and ipsilateral somatosensory cortices. The functional significance and duration of these effects are unknown, and it is unclear whether they also occur in injured humans. We delivered cutaneous stimulation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the sensory cortical representation of the intact hand a...
ConclusionsExtracting temporal and spatial joint and partially-joint sources in a unified algorithm improves the accuracy of joint analysis of the multi-subject fMRI dataset.
ConclusionsGrowth differentiation factor-15 can be used not only for the diagnosis of mitochondrial disease, but as an indicator of its acute exacerbation. A stroke-like episode of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes reflects a drastic derangement of multiple amino acids. The involvement of aspartic acid in the episodes should be explored in future studies.
ConclusionsWithin the main limitation of this pilot study, that is, the small sample, it is possible to state that cephalometric measurements on 3T-MRI seem to possess adequate reliability and repeatability and that they show satisfying agreement with values measured on CBCTs. An MRI examination does not expose patients to ionizing radiation and could provide an alternative to CBCT for three-dimensional cephalometrics in the future.
ConclusionsThe present study suggests that GM abnormalities in the LPAs, which can be detected during the early stage of illness, may underlie impaired verbal communication and positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis.
ConclusionsqMRI enables specific assessment of inflammation in synovium, cartilage, bone, tendons and entheses, and can facilitate a more consistent, personalized approach to diagnosis, characterisation and monitoring of disease.
DiscussionA previous failed arthroscopic Bankart repair was a significant independent risk factor for inferior outcome. Preoperative bony pathology did not explain the worse outcome from the revision vs. primary Latarjet procedure.Level of evidenceIV, cohort observational study.
Abstract The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2019 "Prostate cancer: diagnosis and management" guidelines have recommended that all patients suspected of prostate cancer undergo multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) prior to biopsy. The Likert scoring system is advocated for mpMRI reporting based on multicentre studies that have demonstrated its effectiveness within the National Health Service (NHS). In recent years, there has been considerable drive towards standardised prostate reporting, which led to the development of "Prostate Imaging-Reporting And Data S...