Local abundance of Ixodes scapularis in forests: effects of environmental moisture, vegetation characteristics, and host abundance

Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Howard S. Ginsberg, Eric L. Rulison, Jasmine L. Miller, Genevieve Pang, Isis M. Arsnoe, Graham J. Hickling, Nicholas H. Ogden, Roger A. LeBrun, Jean I. TsaoAbstractIxodes scapularis is the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in eastern and central North America, and local densities of this tick can affect human disease risk. We sampled larvae and nymphs from sites in Massachusetts and Wisconsin, USA, using flag/drag devices and by collecting ticks from hosts, and measured environmental variables to evaluate the environmental factors that affect local distribution and abundance of I. scapularis. Our sites were all forested areas with known I. scapularis populations. Environmental variables included those associated with weather (e.g., temperature and relative humidity), vegetation characteristics (at canopy, shrub, and ground levels), and host abundance (small and medium-sized mammals and reptiles). The numbers of larvae on animals at a given site and season showed a logarithmic relationship to the numbers in flag/drag samples, suggesting limitation in the numbers on host animals. The numbers of nymphs on animals showed no relationship to the numbers in flag/drag samples. These results suggest that only a small proportion of larvae and nymphs found hosts because in neither stage did the numbers of host-seeking ticks decline with increased numbers on hosts. Canopy cover wa...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 1 July 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Saied Reza Naddaf, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Ahmad Ghasemi, Mahdi Rohani, Ali Mohammadi, Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Amir Hesam Nemati, Ehsan Mostafavi
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere.1 Over the last decades, marked increases in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis have been reported in several Western European countries and the United States (US), with substantial impact on public health.2 –6 Erythema migrans is the most common early skin manifestation of the disease, and responds well to antibiotic treatment.7 However, erythema migrans is often not observed preceding disseminated Lyme borreliosis manifestations such as neuroborreliosis, Lyme arthritis and Lyme carditis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Tick-borne diseases like Lyme are on the rise in the US, but a survey has found that programmes to assess and control tick populations are lacking
Source: New Scientist - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: research
WEDNESDAY, June 17, 2020 -- Tick monitoring and control is lacking in much of the United States despite a steady increase in tick-borne illnesses, such as Lyme disease, a new study finds. In the United States, tick-borne illnesses more than doubled...
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
Abstract Ticks are the most important vectors of human pathogens, leading to increased public health burdens worldwide. Tick-borne pathogens include viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan); bacteria, such as the causative agents of Lyme disease, spotted fever rickettsiosis and human anaplasmosis; and malaria-like protozoan parasites causing babesiosis. Tick-borne diseases are emerging due to the geographical expansion of their tick vectors, especially in the northern hemisphere. Two examples of this phenomenon are Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum, which have expanded their ranges in the USA i...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Lyme disease (LD) is an increasing public health problem. Current laboratory testing is insensitive in early infection, the stage at which appropriate treatment is most effective in preventing disease sequelae. The Lyme Disease Biobank (LDB) collects samples from individuals with symptoms consistent with early LD presenting with or without erythema migrans (EM) or an annular, expanding skin lesion and uninfected individuals from areas of endemicity. Samples were collected from 550 participants (298 cases and 252 controls) according to institutional review board-approved protocols and shipped to a centralized biorepository....
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research
The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease relies upon serologic testing. A standard or modified two-tiered testing algorithm is used to enhance the accuracy of antibody detection. However, this approach suffers from a lack of sensitivity in early Lyme disease. Ongoing efforts to develop more sensitive antibody detection technologies and other diagnostic approaches are dependent upon the availability of quality-assured biospecimens linked to reliable clinical data. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Horn et al. (E. J. Horn, G. Dempsey, A. M. Schotthoefer, U. L. Prisco, et al., J Clin Microbiol 58:e00032-2...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was employed to investigate the local population structure of B. garinii in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The study took place in a natural wetland in Slovakia, temporally encompassing spring and autumn bird migration periods as well as the breeding period of resident birds. In total, we examined 369 and 255 ticks collected from 78 birds and local vegetation, respectively. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 43.4% (160/369) of ticks recovered from birds and in 26.3% (67/255) of questing ticks, respectively. Considering the ticks from bird hosts, the highest prevalence was found for ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Committee Opinion No. 399: Management of Tick Bites and Lyme Disease During Pregnancy: (En français : Prise en charge des morsures de tiques et de la maladie de Lyme pendant la grossesse). J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2020 May;42(5):644-653 Authors: Smith GN, Moore KM, Hatchette TF, Nicholson J, Bowie W, Langley JM Abstract OBJECTIVE: Lyme disease is an emerging infection in Canada caused by the bacterium belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex, which is transmitted via the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. Populations of blacklegged ticks continue to expand and are now es...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada : JOGC - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Can Source Type: research
Abstract Tickborne diseases that affect patients in the United States include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, and tickborne relapsing fever. Tickborne diseases are increasing in incidence and should be suspected in patients presenting with flulike symptoms during the spring and summer months. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and death. Location of exposure, identification of the specific tick vector, and evaluation of rash, if present, help identify the specific disease. Lyme disease presents with an ...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
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