The gordon wilson lecture: the hepatitis c virus: from hippocrates to cure.
THE GORDON WILSON LECTURE: THE HEPATITIS C VIRUS: FROM HIPPOCRATES TO CURE. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine. Prospective studies of transfusion recipients then showed that hepatitis B virus accounted for only 25% of cases of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH). Discovery of the hepatitis A virus in 1975 revealed that none of the non-B PTH cases were due to hepatitis A virus infection resulting in the designation of this predominant form of PTH as non-A, non-B hepatitis. Using pedigreed patient samples and the chimp model, it was shown even before the advent of molecular biology that the non-A, non-B agent was small and lipid enveloped suggesting it might be a flavivirus. This was confirmed when the agent was cloned by Houghton and colleagues at the Chiron Corporation in 1987 and renamed the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In 1990 a donor screening assay for HCV was introduced nationwide and by 1997 PTH had virtually disappeared with rates now mathematically estimated to be...
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces variable protection against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and a more effective TB vaccine is needed. The potential for BCG to provide protection against heterologous infections, by induction of innate immune memory, is increasingly recognized. These nonspecific responses may substantially benefit public health, but are also variable. In this issue of the JCI, Koeken and de Bree et al. report that BCG reduces circulating inflammatory markers in males but not in females, while de Bree and Mouritis et al. describe how diurnal rhythms affect the degree of BCG-induced inn...
CONCLUSION The capacity of BCG to enhance microbial responsiveness while dampening systemic inflammation should be further explored for potential therapeutic applications.FUNDING Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, European Research Council, and the Danish National Research Foundation.
CONCLUSIONS BCG vaccination in the morning induces stronger trained immunity and adaptive responses compared with evening vaccination. Future studies should take vaccine administration time into account when studying specific and nonspecific effects of vaccines; early morning should be the preferred moment of BCG administration.FUNDING The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, the European Research Council, and the Danish National Research Foundation.
Trump claims Covid-19 only “really” affects people who have “other problems”;European stocks post worst fall in three months; UK cases pass 400,000;More than one in five Covid-19 deaths globally is in US. Follow the latest updatesUS nears 200,000 deaths‘Landmark moment’: 156 countries agree to vaccine allocation dealTaj Mahal reopens as coronavirus cases continue to rise in IndiaUK could see 200 deaths a day by November, warns chief medical officerUK coronavirus updates – live5.19amBSTAfter rescheduling her wedding three times this year, Nalan Altas was finally supposed to be getti...
Contributors : Jiyan Zhang ; Jian LiuSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensSMMC-7721 single clones stably expressing control shRNA or ETFA shRNAs 1# and 2# were generated and subjected to microarray.
I’m kind of in a dilemma. I’m a student athlete, so I can’t really take a gap year in the middle of my four years of college. However at the same time I feel really called to take a year off and do a one-year global health focused Christian missions program in Australia through a large missions ministry called YWAM. Therefore, my only choice is to go after I graduate. I would be going from early July 2022 to late June 2023. However, I also don’t want to take more than 1 year off. So this... T20 Schools Deferment Policy
Gov. Ned Lamont says Connecticut is forming an advisory group to validate the safety of any coronavirus vaccines and how to distribute them to the public
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2020Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Fangbin Weng, Xiaofei Li
'Pfizer's doing really well,' Trump said in a Fox News interview. 'Johnson &Johnson...they'll probably be a little later.' Vaccine czar Dr Moncef Slaoui said vulnerable Americans may get a shot by December.
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