The gordon wilson lecture: the hepatitis c virus: from hippocrates to cure.

THE GORDON WILSON LECTURE: THE HEPATITIS C VIRUS: FROM HIPPOCRATES TO CURE. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine. Prospective studies of transfusion recipients then showed that hepatitis B virus accounted for only 25% of cases of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH). Discovery of the hepatitis A virus in 1975 revealed that none of the non-B PTH cases were due to hepatitis A virus infection resulting in the designation of this predominant form of PTH as non-A, non-B hepatitis. Using pedigreed patient samples and the chimp model, it was shown even before the advent of molecular biology that the non-A, non-B agent was small and lipid enveloped suggesting it might be a flavivirus. This was confirmed when the agent was cloned by Houghton and colleagues at the Chiron Corporation in 1987 and renamed the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In 1990 a donor screening assay for HCV was introduced nationwide and by 1997 PTH had virtually disappeared with rates now mathematically estimated to be...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: The results of the Keynote-048 study have already led to the approval of pembrolizumab in the first line for platin-sensitive HNSCC in the USA and the expected approval in Europe will presumably change the therapeutic landscape in the long term. In the future, effective therapies for patients without a response to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibition will be needed. PMID: 31612261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: Fish &Shellfish Immunology, Volume 95Author(s): Min Sun Kim, Ki Hong KimAbstractViral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) has been one of the major causes of mortality in a wide range of freshwater and marine fishes worldwide. Although various types of vaccines have been tried to prevent VHSV disease in cultured fishes, there are still no commercial vaccines. Reverse genetics have made it possible to change a certain regions on viral genome in accordance with the requirements of a research. Various types of VHSV mutants have been generated through the reverse genetic method, and m...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Yasmeen M. Attia, Dina M. El-Kersh, Reham A. Ammar, Aliaa Adel, Aya Khalil, Hoda Walid, Kirullos Eskander, Mohamed Hamdy, Nada Reda, Nour Elhoda Mohsen, Ghada M. Al-Toukhy, Mohamed Tarek Mansour, Mohamed M. ElmazarAbstractTreatment of breast cancer by paclitaxel (PAX) often encounters therapeutic failure most likely caused by innate/acquired resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and multidrug resistance complex (MDR-1 or P-glycoprotein) overexpression are main mechanisms implicated in chemoresistance. Increased aldehyde dehro...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: Microchemical JournalAuthor(s): Dalissa G. Villa Nova, Nicolle F. Robaina, Karoline Dutra do Amaral, Ricardo J. CassellaAbstractThis paper reports the development of a novel approach for the separation of Cd(II) from production waters generated during petroleum prospection. The analyte was separated from the highly saline waters as a dithiocarbamate (DDTC) complex using a low-density polyethylene semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) filled with chloroform. The quantification of cadmium(II) in the extracts was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrome...
Source: Microchemical Journal - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our study shows that ingenol mebutate is highly efficacious field treatment for actinic keratosis. PMID: 31616223 [PubMed]
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The PIPAC is safe and is not a burdensome or aggressive form of therapy, especially according to the very important factors influencing the potential quality of hair and hair loss. The authors, however, realize that to obtain comprehensive results and evaluate this novel and promising method we need to perform more research without any limitations like those in our study. PMID: 31616222 [PubMed]
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
Authors: Kamińska-Winciorek G, Cybulska-Stopa B, Lugowska I, Ziobro M, Rutkowski P Abstract The introduction of immunotherapy into the treatment of cancer patients has revolutionised the oncological approach and significantly improved patient survival. The key drugs are immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), whose mechanism of action is to elicit immune response against cancer cell antigens. Three types of CPIs are currently used and approved: an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, ipilimumab; anti-PD-1 antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab; and anti-PD-L1 antibodies: atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab. CPIs have been widely...
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to explore the efficacy and safety profile of apatinib monotherapy, or combined with chemotherapy or endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)-TKI in heavily pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases. We performed a retrospective analysis for relapsed NSCLC patients with brain metastases from our institute, whom received apatinib (250mg or 500mg p.o. qd) monotherapy, or combination with EGFR-TKI or chemotherapy as second- or more line systemic therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The objective response rate (ORR), disease control rat...
Source: Oncology Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Res Source Type: research
Authors: Gąsiorek P, Sakowicz A, Banach M, von Haehling S, Bielecka-Dabrowa A Abstract Purpose: The study is aimed at identifying echocardiographic and circulating biomarkers as well as hemodynamic indices of embolic stroke of undetermined etiology (ESUS) in patients aged
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
Conclusion: rs28362491 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of HNCs, especially with NC. Additionally, our results showed that no association was discovered between rs2233406 polymorphism and HNCs. PMID: 31612070 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
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