Radiation dose and risk to the lens of the eye during CT examinations of the brain

SummaryCataracts are the leading cause of blindness and visual disability worldwide. Of the known contributing factors to this condition, ionising radiation is considered the primary concern in a radiological context given the particular radiosensitivity of the lens of the eye. In light of the substantially increased application of computed tomography in brain imaging, an investigation of the relevent literature is warranted to assess thresholds, lens radiation doses and dose reduction techniques in respect to the cataractogenic risk of such examinations. The value and very existence of a lens dose threshold is debatable given different considerations of radiation dose, latency, opacity classifications and historical sample populations, though ICRP guidelines suggest a threshold of 0.5  Gy. Documented CT‐specific radiation doses to the eye following scans of the brain are highly variable between studies (2–130 mGy), primarily owing to discrepancies in scanning technique. These findings, when coupled with the relative ambiguity of known threshold values, present difficulties in assessing the overall risk of cataracts following serial CT examinations to the head. In the absence of definitive risk evaluations, a cautionary approach is advised. The implementation of gantry tilt along the supraorbital margin is recommended as standard practice on account of its highly effec tive radiation dose reduction outcomes. Organ‐based tube modulation and reductions in tu...
Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Medical Imaging —Review Article Source Type: research

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A child receives treatment in the northeastern district of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Credit: Naimul Haq/IPS By External SourceGENEVA, Oct 8 2019 (IPS) A staggering 2.2 billion people already suffer from eye conditions and visual impairment today, but the global need for eye care is set to increase “dramatically”, with lack of exercise a key factor, the UN health agency said on Tuesday, unveiling its first ever report on vision across the world. While welcoming recent successes in eliminating common conditions such as trachoma in eight countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) highlighted evidence indicating ...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
Although childhood cataract is rare, it is the leading cause of treatable blindness, estimated to be the cause of 5% to 20% of pediatric blindness worldwide.1 This disability is gaining importance and is a primary topic of Vision 2020: The Right to Sight, a global initiative of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness and the World Health Organization, the aim of which is to end avoidable vision loss. The biological characteristics of children's eyes make the treatment of pediatric cataracts particularly challenging.
Source: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: From the editor Source Type: research
In this study, we found that cofilin competes with tau for direct microtubule binding in vitro, in cells, and in vivo, which inhibits tau-induced microtubule assembly. Genetic reduction of cofilin mitigates tauopathy and synaptic defects in Tau-P301S mice and movement deficits in tau transgenic C. elegans. The pathogenic effects of cofilin are selectively mediated by activated cofilin, as active but not inactive cofilin selectively interacts with tubulin, destabilizes microtubules, and promotes tauopathy. These results therefore indicate that activated cofilin plays an essential intermediary role in neurotoxic signaling th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis research aims to summarize evidence on the cardiovascular effects of indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid fuel and identify areas for research and policy for low- and middle-income countries.Recent FindingsIAP affects people from low socioeconomic status in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, who depend upon biomass as a fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. In these settings, IAP disproportionately affects women, children, the elderly, and people with cardiopulmonary disease. The health effects of IAP include acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumoconiosis...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Conclusion: Data from applications for blindness certificates provide valuable information regarding different causes of VI that might otherwise not be eligible for blindness certification and provide an insight into the overall trends in disease profile and service delivery.
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsStrong gender inequalities were observed, with a higher prevalence of visual impairment and related cataracts among women, which could be related to gender inequalities in access to health care, and undiagnosed eye disease and related glaucoma among men, which could be related to their gender socialization resulting in less frequent and effectively use of health care services.
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Easy-to-use, accessible and relatively low-cost solution for a widely experienced problem: these are my favorite digital health innovations. EyeQue Insight lets anyone test their vision at home so people living in rural areas, with special needs or no access to transportation could still make sure they have the necessary sight test from time to time. Here’s our EyeQue Insight review. Have you seen the numbers? What about the letters? Eye problems are global phenomena: the World Health Organisation estimates that approximately 1.3 billion people live with some form of vision impairment. That means on average at least ...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Health Sensors & Trackers Medical Professionals Patients eye eye test future home Innovation ophthalmology review technology testing vision Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: The results highlight the magnitude of the problem of ocular diseases to the social security system, with serious economic and social losses, and emphasize the need for measures aimed at their prevention. Moreover, integration between the national departments of health and social security needs to be improved.RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar a frequ ência das doenças oculares entre os segurados com benefícios por incapacidade. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 217.221 benefícios por incapacidade concedidos pelo Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (INSS) da gerência executiva ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The specific causes of visual impairment vary greatly with age, however, unavoidable retinal pathologies were the predominant causes at all ages. PMID: 29748945 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
Abstract Contiguous microdeletions of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) region on chromosome Xp11.3 have been widely confirmed as contributing to the typical clinical features of Norrie disease (ND). However, the precise relation between genotype and phenotype could vary. The contiguous deletion of NDP and its neighbouring genes, MAOA/B and EFHC2, reportedly leads to syndromic clinical features such as microcephaly, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Herewe report a novel contiguous microdeletion of the NDP region containing the MAOB and EFHC2 genes,which causes eye defects but no cognitive disability.We d...
Source: Journal of Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: J Genet Source Type: research
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