Narrative review comparing the epidemiology, characteristics, and survival in sporadic colorectal carcinoma/Lynch syndrome

ConclusionFurther studies should be conducted to provide new insights about survival of colorectal carcinoma in Lynch syndrome, as well as the therapeutic alternatives for this neoplasia.ResumoIntroduçãoO carcinoma colorretal é a terceira neoplasia mais prevalente no mundo, bem como a segunda causa de morte por câncer. A maioria destas neoplasias são esporádicas, devidas a mutações somáticas, mas cerca de 15% são hereditárias como a síndrome de Lynch ou Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC). Apesar de ser a mesma neoplasia, esta apresenta características clinico-patológicas e moleculares distintas, bem como diferentes prognósticos. Nos casos de síndrome de Lynch, a sobrevida parece ser maior quando comparada com os carcinomas esporádicos.MétodosRealizamos uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as diferentes características e desenvolvimentos do carcinoma colorretal esporádico e no contexto da síndrome de Lynch, para concluir o que causa a maior sobrevida no caso das neoplasias associadas a esta síndrome.ResultadosApesar das características histopatológicas apontarem para um pior prognóstico, o HNPCC apresenta uma maior sobrevida em relação ao carcinoma colorretal esporádico.DiscussãoA maior sobrevivência nos carcinomas colorretais associados ao HNPCC em...
Source: Journal of Coloproctology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

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This review is an appraisal of the current state of knowledge of 2 enigmatic histotypes of ovarian carcinoma: endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma. Both show an association endometriosis and the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch) syndrome, and both typically present at an early stage. Pathologic and immunohistochemical features that distinguish these tumors from high-grade serous carcinomas, each other, and other potential mimics are discussed, as are staging, grading, and molecular pathogenesis.
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The molecular pathogenesis and classification of colorectal carcinoma are based on the traditional adenomaecarcinoma sequence, serrated polyp pathway, and microsatellite instability (MSI). The genetic basis for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is the detection of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM genes. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome includes MSI testing, methylator phenotype testing, BRAF mutation testing, and molecular testing for germline mutations in MMR genes. Molecular makers with predictive and prognostic implications include quantitative multigene reverse transcriptas...
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Lab Med Source Type: research
The molecular pathogenesis and classification of colorectal carcinoma are based on the traditional adenomaecarcinoma sequence, serrated polyp pathway, and microsatellite instability (MSI). The genetic basis for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is the detection of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM genes. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome includes MSI testing, methylator phenotype testing, BRAF mutation testing, and molecular testing for germline mutations in MMR genes. Molecular makers with predictive and prognostic implications include quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase polymerase chain...
Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X (FCCTX) is a type of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in accordance to Amsterdam criteria-1 for Lynch syndrome, with no related mutation in mismatch repair gene. FCCTX is microsatellite stable and is accounted for 40% of families with Amsterdam criteria-1 with a high age of onset. Thus, the carcinogenesis of FCCTX is different compared to Lynch syndrome. In addition to the microsatellite stability and the presence of less predominant tumors in proximal colon, various clinical features have also been associated with FCCTX in comparison with Lynch syndrome such as no increased risk ...
Source: Current Problems in Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsMany experts and professional authorities have recommended a universal MSI testing in all individuals newly diagnosed with colorectal cancers.
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a significant risk of colorectal and endometrial cancers. A variety of other epithelial cancers may be associated with this syndrome, including ovarian, gastric, small bowel, hepatobiliary, renal, ureteral, skin, breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. Brain tumors are infrequent, but have been reported in series [1]. Individuals who have biallelic Lynch syndrome mutations in MLH1, MSH-2, MSH-6, or PMS-2 have a childhood-onset disorder now referred to as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome, in whic...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Abstract Hereditary breast ovarian cancer and Lynch/hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome account for most hereditary gynecologic cancers. In the absence of effective cancer screening and other preventative strategies, risk-reducing surgery in women who are known to be at genetic risk of BRCA-associated or of Lynch syndrome carcinomas is effective in significantly decreasing the lifetime risk of developing malignancy. Reflex genomic testing of high-grade ovarian cancers and reflex immunohistochemistry in endometrial cancers will lead to greater recognition of germline-associated cancers. Approaches to...
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Surg Pathol Clin Source Type: research
Hereditary breast ovarian cancer and Lynch/hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome account for most hereditary gynecologic cancers. In the absence of effective cancer screening and other preventative strategies, risk-reducing surgery in women who are known to be at genetic risk of BRCA-associated or of Lynch syndrome carcinomas is effective in significantly decreasing the lifetime risk of developing malignancy. Reflex genomic testing of high-grade ovarian cancers and reflex immunohistochemistry in endometrial cancers will lead to greater recognition of germline-associated cancers.
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Vellone VG, Paudice M, Varesco L Abstract Early diagnosis and proper management of gynecologic malignancies represent a challenge in modern oncology. A growing interest has arisen around the gynecological manifestations of hereditary cancer syndromes. In particular, the discovery of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in ovarian cancer and the mismatch repair genes (MMR) in endometrial carcinoma has revolutionized our approach to the diagnosis and screening of women for ovarian and uterine cancers. The clinical, genetic and pathological features of hereditary cancer syndromes with gynecological manifestations are re...
Source: Minerva Ginecologica - Category: OBGYN Tags: Minerva Ginecol Source Type: research
Discussion: Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms and programs improves and increases the lifetime expectancy, due to the fact that endometrial cancer is early diagnosed and treated before it causes serious health problems or even death. Abbreviations: ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, CT = Computerized Tomography, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI-H/ MSI-L = high (positive test)/ low (negative test) microsatellites instability, PCR = Polymerase chain reaction, MRI = Magneti...
Source: Journal of Medicine and Life - Category: Journals (General) Tags: J Med Life Source Type: research
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