Impact of Antibiotic Resistance on Treatment of Pneumococcal Disease in Ethiopia: An Agent-Based Modeling Simulation.

This study sought to quantify the effect of AMR on treatments for pediatric pneumococcal disease in Ethiopia. We developed the DREAMR (Dynamic Representation of the Economics of AMR) model that simulated children younger than 5 years who acquire pneumococcal disease (pneumonia, meningitis, and acute otitis media) and seek treatment from various health facilities in Ethiopia over a year. We examined the AMR levels of three antibiotics (penicillin, amoxicillin, and ceftriaxone), treatment failures, and attributable deaths. We used a cost-of-illness method to assess the resulting economic impact of AMR from a societal perspective by estimating the direct and indirect treatment costs and productivity losses. Findings showed that AMR against antibiotics that were used to treat pneumococcal disease led to 195,763 treatment failures, which contributed to 2,925 child deaths annually in Ethiopia. Antimicrobial resistance resulted in a first-line treatment failure rate of 29.4%. In 1 year, the proportion of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria increased by 2.1% and 0.5% for amoxicillin and penicillin and reduced by 0.3% for less commonly used ceftriaxone. Annual costs of AMR to treat pneumococcal disease were around US$15.8 million, including US$3.3 million for ineffective first-line treatments, US$3.7 million for second-line treatments, and US$8.9 million for long-term productivity losses. Antibiotic stewardship to reduce misuse and overuse of antibiotics is essential to m...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Patients undergoing fast-track management with extubation within 6 hours had shorter stays in the intensive care unit without increasing postoperative complications and death. Patients extubated in the operating room had a shorter hospital stay and a shorter stay in the intensive care unit but showed an increase in the frequency of reintubation and postoperative complications.
Source: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
Authors: Brignardello-Petersen R PMID: 31606117 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of the American Dental Association - Category: Dentistry Tags: J Am Dent Assoc Source Type: research
New J. Chem., 2019, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C9NJ03727F, PaperMahdieh Malekzadeh, King Lun Yeung, Mohammad Halali, Qing Chang Preparation of Ag@SiO2–penicillin NPs with superior synergistic and antibacterial properties against methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe overall VTE rate after CABG has been low. However, the condition has been associated with worse 30-day postoperative outcomes and complications. The independent predictors of VTE development included a history of bleeding disorders, congestive heart failure in the 30 days before surgery, and operative time of ≥310 minutes. Understanding these risk factors should aid physicians in the decisions regarding prophylaxis and treatment.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Did the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines help decrease the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis?Emerging Infectious Diseases
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pediatrics Journal Article Source Type: news
By KIP SULLIVAN, JD The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and other proponents of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) justified their support for the HRRP with the claim that research had already demonstrated how hospitals could reduce readmissions for all Medicare fee-for-service patients, not just for groups of carefully selected patients. In this three-part series, I am reviewing the evidence for that claim. We saw in Part I and Part II that the research MedPAC cited in its 2007 report to Congress (the report Congress relied on in authorizing the HRRP) contained no studies supporting tha...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Policy Medicare health reform Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program HRRP Kip Sullivan MedPAC Source Type: blogs
Do you recall thetelephone game? Players sit in a circle and the first person whispers a phrase into the ear of the second person, who whispers it to the third person, and so forth, until it gets to the last player, who then repeats the phrase that they heard. Typically, the phrase changes substantially from the beginning because a series of small, progressive changes add up to a completely different phrase at the end.The only way to prevent this is for the first person to deliver such a clear message that it cannot be mistaken.In this commentary, I show how the lack of clarity by the CDC and other health groups in communi...
Source: The Rest of the Story: Tobacco News Analysis and Commentary - Category: Addiction Source Type: blogs
The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is launching a new center...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Radiofrequency ultrasound, AI predict thyroid cancer AI model could speed up pneumonia diagnosis in ED Societies team up to promote ethics in radiology AI AI algorithm can accurately diagnose appendicitis Nvidia, ACR collaborate on AI for radiology
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
ConclusionThe AMK resistance rate in M. abscessus clinical isolates in this study was low (2.6%). The A1408 G mutation in rrs and overexpression of WhiB7 and Tap were the predominant mechanisms of AMK resistance in M. abscessus.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Professor Dame Sally Davies, England's Chief Medical Officer, recently warned that the world could face a  " post-antibiotic apocalypse.” She urged that, unless action is taken to halt the practices that have allowed antibiotic resistance to spread and ways are found to develop new types of antibiotics, we could return to the days when simple wounds, infections or routine operations, are life-threatening. To mark   World Antibiotic Awareness Week, 12th-18th November 2018,  we are highlighting Cochrane  evidence which supports decision-making in the appropriate use of antibiotics.&nb...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news
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