Recent estimates of the out-of-pocket expenditure on health care in Australia.

ConclusionsOOP expenditure on health care as a proportion of the total household expenditure on all goods and services has increased by more than 25% between 2009-10 and 2015-16.What is known about the topic?Australian households incur OOP expenses for health care in Australia for a wide range of goods and services, such as copayments to doctors and other health professionals beyond the Medicare rebates, the cost of medicines and other pharmaceutical goods not covered entirely by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and PHI premiums. Although other estimates of OOP expenditure are available in official reports of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, they are based on administrative records rather than consumer reports, and cannot be disaggregated by item or the characteristics of households.What does this paper add?This paper provides detailed information on OOP expenditure on health care as reported by a probability sample of households interviewed for the HES conducted by the ABS during 2015-16. These estimates of OOP expenditure, based on consumer reports, add a further dimension to the information available from administrative records only.What are the implications for practitioners?Practitioners should take account of the effect of increasing copayments for their services, especially on patients belonging to the lower socioeconomic categories. Increasing copayments may lead to people foregoing medical care. Health planners and politicians should note the steady ...
Source: Australian Health Review - Category: Hospital Management Authors: Tags: Aust Health Rev Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of SolidsAuthor(s): Laurens T. de Haan, Eser M. Akinoglu, Guofu ZhouAbstractA device consisting of a multidomain liquid crystal polymer network sandwiched between a continuous electrode and a perforated silver electrode shows strong surface deformations upon application of an electric field between the electrodes. Here, a new method is presented for the preparation of such a device, in which a silver film with circular holes of a well-controlled diameter was made by evaporating silver onto a monolayer of polystyrene spheres. Due to ...
Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids - Category: Physics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of SolidsAuthor(s): Zhenle Tian, Liping Zhang, Xinxin Sang, Gang Shi, Caihua NiAbstractSodium alginate is a natural biomacromolecule with promising applications as a flocculant for wastewater treatment due to its biodegradability and non-toxicity. To enhance the flocculating efficiency, simplify the synthetic process of the flocculants and expand the application scope of alginate, a novel amphoteric flocculant was synthesized through reaction of alginate with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride under alkaline conditi...
Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids - Category: Physics Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids - Category: Physics Source Type: research
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Source: Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Clinical Research Source Type: research
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Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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Source: RSC - Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Insect Science - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Source: Insect Science - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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