Who is seeking antiretroviral treatment for HIV now? Characteristics of patients presenting in Kenya and South Africa in 2017-2018.

We describe demographic, socioeconomic and clinical characteristics of patients randomized to the same-day initiation arm for both studies. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 240 and 296 participants were enrolled in Kenya and South Africa. The majority were female (59% and 64% respectively), with a median age of 35 years. In both countries, most subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV on the day of enrolment (62%, 55%), believed they already had adequate knowledge to begin ART (78%, 68%), and preferred to start ART immediately (same-day) (98% in both countries). About 40% of all patients had at least one symptom related to tuberculosis (cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss) and/or cryptococcal meningitis (continuous headache). More than a third of patients (37%, 36%) presented with advanced disease (CD4 
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Applying a predictive model with clinical and laboratory indices can facilitate the differential diagnosis of TPE from SMPPE in children, which seems helpful when a microbiologic or histologic diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis could not be established.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
In this review, we report the available data regarding efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of colistin in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in neonates and infants. Seventeen clinical studies, involving 312 patients, and 3 pharmacokinetics studies were identified. Blood stream infection was the most common source of infection, followed by pneumonia and meningitis/ventriculitis. In most cases, colistin was administered in association with other antibiotics. The most common route of administration was intravenous, with colistimethate doses ranging from 25,000 to 225,000 IU/kg/day divided into 2 or...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research
Diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis is notoriously difficult. We investigated the additional yield of blood culture in hospitalized children in Vietnam. Among 554 enrolled clinically suspected patients, an additional 6 cases were diagnosed, while the incremental cost per case was USD500. Addition of blood culture is therefore not recommended for our total patient population, but may be considered in specific groups.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
Our world is amidst a crucial overweight and obesity pandemic that continues to grow, with 2 billion of the world ’s population overweight and approximately 700 million adults with obesity.1 Once thought to be a disease of the rich and affluent, weight-related and metabolic diseases are on the rise across all socioeconomic classes and residential settings. The enduring physiologic and hormonal changes that oc cur with weight gain make sustainable weight loss with just diet and exercise, commonly known as lifestyle modification, not feasible for most people.
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
In this study, we explored the effect of β -Lapachone ( β L), a compound obtained from the bark of the lapacho tree, against obesity. In vivo administration of β L into either high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL6 mice and genetically obese Lepr -∕- mice prevented body weight gain, which was associated with tissue weight loss of white adipose tissue (WAT). In addition, β L elevated thermogenic proteins including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and mitochondrial count in BAT and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). β L also induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosph...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: LWT, Volume 118Author(s): Marthe J. Blikra, Flemming Jessen, Aberham H. Feyissa, Mette R. Vaka, Dagbjørn SkipnesAbstractLow levels of salt are frequently used to increase flavor and water retention in cod. This alters the biochemical properties of cod during heating. In this paper, properties needed to mathematically model moisture transfer during cooking – water holding capacity and storage modulus – were determined for cod containing 0.06, 1 and 3 g/100 g NaCl. Protein denaturation and microstructure was also investigated to increase the understanding of qualit...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
The worldwide prevalence of depression among people with HIV/AIDS is 31%, according to new findings.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV/AIDS News Source Type: news
We present the case of a 30-year-old Bissau-Guinean man with HIV-2 infection known for 16 years, irregularly treated, admitted with two weeks of fever, diarrhoea and cutaneous lesions. Examination revealed multiple subcutaneous nodes, Molluscum contagiosum-like lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy and painful palpation of the left iliac fossa. Laboratory tests showed severe nonhaemolytic anaemia and CD4+ count of 9/mm3, with normal creatinine and hepatic enzymes. Chest roentgenogram was unremarkable and a research for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by GeneXpert® was negative. Nonetheless, given the lack of further diagnost...
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Yayehirad A. Melsew, Adeshina I. Adekunle, Allen C. Cheng, Emma S. McBryde, Romain Ragonnet, James M. TrauerAbstractTB mathematical models employ various assumptions and approaches in dealing with the heterogeneous infectiousness of persons with active TB. We reviewed existing approaches and considered the relationship between them and existing epidemiological evidence.We searched the following electronic bibliographic databases from inception to 9 October 2018: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Global Health and Scopus. Two investigators extracted data u...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
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