Human immune responses and potential for vaccine assessment in humanized mice.

Human immune responses and potential for vaccine assessment in humanized mice. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013 Apr 26; Authors: Akkina R Abstract The new humanized mouse models with a transplanted human immune system have a capacity for de novo multilineage human hematopoiesis and generate T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and NK cells. Of the two current leading humanized mouse models, the hu-HSC model is created by human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment whereas the BLT mouse model is prepared by co-transplantation of human fetal liver, thymus and HSC. Humoral and cellular immune responses are seen in both models after immunization with antigens or infection with hematotropic pathogens such as EBV, HIV-1 and dengue viruses. While consistent antigen specific IgM production is seen, IgG responses were found to be generally feeble which is attributed to inefficient immunoglobulin class switching. BLT mice permit human HLA restricted T cell responses due to the autologous human thymus contributing to T cell maturation. Use of HLA Class I and II transgenic hu-HSC mice recently demonstrated that the HLA restriction deficiency could be overcome in this model. However, the overall vigor of the immune responses needs further improvement in both the models to approach that of the human. Towards this goal, supplementation with human cytokines and growth factors by transgenesis to improve human cell reconstitution and their homeostatic maintenance are begi...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Related Links:

TTP, a technology company based in Melbourn, UK, is developing a handheld PCR (polymerase chain reaction) diagnostic device that can rapidly detect influenza viruses, and one day other viruses, in samples of nasal mucus. The company claims that the s...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Diagnostics Exclusive Public Health Source Type: blogs
Publication date: March 2020Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 8, Issue 3Author(s): Sudeep Adhikari, Buddha Basnyat, Kripa Maharjan
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
In recent years, Ecuador and other South American countries have experienced an increase in arboviral diseases. A rise in dengue infections was followed by introductions of chikungunya and Zika, two viruses ne...
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Condition:   Healthy Volunteers Interventions:   Drug: AV-1;   Drug: Placebo Sponsors:   AbViro LLC;   National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
In conclusion, anisomycin is a potent and selective in vitro inhibitor of DENV and ZIKV that impairs a post-entry step of viral replication; and a low-dose anisomycin treatment may provide some minimal benefit in a mouse model.
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceViroTrack Dengue Acute is a sensitive and specific assay for DENV NS1 detection. It provides faster results than the ELISA method and a better performance than the rapid immunochromatographic tests. ViroTrack Dengue Acute could represent a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of DENV infections in returning travellers from endemic countries.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Almost all the women in our study showed serological evidence of Dengue immunity, suggesting that microcephaly can occur in DENV immune mothers. T cell immunity to Zika virus showed a multifunctional response to the antigens Env and NS1 and immune regulatory responses to NS5 and C protein. Our data support an argument that different viral products may skew the antiviral response to a more pro or anti-inflammatory outcome, with an associated impact on immunopathogenesis.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Mosquitoes are principal vector of several vector-borne diseases affecting human beings leading to thousands of deaths per year and responsible for transmitting diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis, and lymphatic filariasis. In the present study, we evaluated the different solvent extracts of mangrove Avicennia marina for their toxicity against larvae of three major mosquito vectors, as well as selected microbial pathogens. The larvicidal mortality of third instars was observed after 24 h. Highest larval mortality was found for the acetone extrac...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
Illnesses transmitted by Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika comprise a considerable global burden; mosquito control is the primary public health tool to reduce disease transmissio...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Dengue Fever | Liver | Liver Transplant | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Study | Transplants | Urology & Nephrology | Vaccines