Challenges and controversies in childhood tuberculosis

Publication date: 14–20 September 2019Source: The Lancet, Volume 394, Issue 10202Author(s): Anja Reuter, Jennifer Hughes, Jennifer FurinSummaryChildren bear a substantial burden of suffering when it comes to tuberculosis. Ironically, they are often left out of the scientific and public health advances that have led to important improvements in tuberculosis diagnosis, treatment, and prevention over the past decade. This Series paper describes some of the challenges and controversies in paediatric tuberculosis, including the epidemiology and treatment of tuberculosis in children. Two areas in which substantial challenges and controversies exist (ie, diagnosis and prevention) are explored in more detail. This Series paper also offers possible solutions for including children in all efforts to end tuberculosis, with a focus on ensuring that the proper financial and human resources are in place to best serve children exposed to, infected with, and sick from all forms of tuberculosis.
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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This guideline covers preventing, identifying and managing latent and active tuberculosis (TB) in children, young people and adults. It aims to improve ways of finding people who have TB in the community and recommends that everyone under 65 with latent TB should be treated. It describes how TB services should be organised, including the role of the TB control board. It was updated in September 2019.
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
[IPS] United Nations -A staggering 1.5 million people died from tuberculosis (TB) last year, the UN health agency said on Thursday, in an appeal for far greater funding and political support to eradicate the curable and preventable disease.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe rate of helminthic co-infection is predominantly high than that of intestinal protozoa. Single parasitic co-infection was more common than double or multiple co-infections. Both body mass index and mid-upper arm circumference anthropometric parameters revealed greater risk of undernutrition in tuberculosis patients. Thus, screening and prompt treatment of parasites in tuberculosis patients and a support of nutritional supplementation for malnourished tuberculosis patients should be further studied which might enhance the disease treatment and minimize the risk of its complexity.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
The lungs are the most vulnerable site for air-borne infections. Immunologic compartmentalization of the lungs into airway lumen and interstitium has paved the way to determine the immune status of the site of pathogen entry, which is crucial for the outcome of any air-borne infections. Vaccination via the nasal route with Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), a prospective candidate vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), has been reported to confer superior protection as compared to the subcutaneous (s.c.) route in small-animal models of TB. However, the immune mechanism remains only partly understood. Here, we showed that intr...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest diseases, causing ~2 million deaths annually worldwide. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only TB vaccine in common use, is effective against disseminated and meningeal TB in young children but is not effective against adult pulmonary TB. T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-) and Th17 cells producing interleukin-17 (IL-17) play key roles in host protection against TB, whereas Th2 cells producing IL-4 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) facilitate TB disease progression by inhibiting protective Th1 and Th17 responses. Furthermore, the longe...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
The administration of a high fat content diet is an accelerating factor for metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and early type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to assess the impact of a high fat diet on tuberculosis progression and microbiota composition in an experimental animal model using a C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain submitted to single or multiple consecutive aerosol infections. These models allowed us to study the protection induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination as well as by the natural immunity induced by chemotherapy after a low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our results show ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is now the leading cause of death from infectious disease. Rapid screening and diagnostic methods for TB are urgently required. Rapid development of metagenomics next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in recent years showed promising and satisfying application of mNGS in several kinds of infectious diseases. However, research directly evaluating the ability of mNGS in TB infection is still scarce.Methods: We conducted an adult prospective study in mainland China to evaluate the diagnostic performance of mNGS for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) in multiple forms of direct clini...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Unlike many other well-characterized bacteria, the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies exclusively on the Entner-Doudoroff pathway (EDP) for glycolysis. Pyruvate kinase (PK) is the main “pacemaker” of the EDP, and its activity is also relevant for P. aeruginosa virulence. Two distinct isozymes of bacterial PK have been recognized, PykA and PykF. Here, using growth and expression analyses of relevant PK mutants, we show that PykA is the dominant isoform in P. aeruginosa. Enzyme kinetics assays revealed that PykA displays potent K-type allosteric activation by glucose 6-phosphate and by int...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
A 25 year-old tuberculosis patient is treated at her home in Funafuti, the main island of Tuvalu in the South Pacific. Credit: UNDP Tuvalu/Aurélia Rusek.By External SourceUNITED NATIONS, Oct 17 2019 (IPS) A staggering 1.5 million people died from tuberculosis (TB) last year, the UN health agency said on Thursday, in an appeal for far greater funding and political support to eradicate the curable and preventable disease. Caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB commonly causes persistent coughing, fatigue and weight loss. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and its latest Global TB Report, a...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health Poverty & SDGs Source Type: news
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