Chapter Four - Structural insights into coronavirus entry

Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): M. Alejandra Tortorici, David VeeslerAbstractCoronaviruses (CoVs) have caused outbreaks of deadly pneumonia in humans since the beginning of the 21st century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and was responsible for an epidemic that spread to five continents with a fatality rate of 10% before being contained in 2003 (with additional cases reported in 2004). The Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 and has caused recurrent outbreaks in humans with a fatality rate of 35%. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are zoonotic viruses that crossed the species barrier using bats/palm civets and dromedary camels, respectively. No specific treatments or vaccines have been approved against any of the six human coronaviruses, highlighting the need to investigate the principles governing viral entry and cross-species transmission as well as to prepare for zoonotic outbreaks which are likely to occur due to the large reservoir of CoVs found in mammals and birds. Here, we review our understanding of the infection mechanism used by coronaviruses derived from recent structural and biochemical studies.
Source: Advances in Virus Research - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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Authors: Tosoni A, Paratore M, Piscitelli P, Addolorato G, De Cosmo S, Mirijello A, Internal Medicine Sepsis Study Group Abstract Procalcitonin (PCT) is a circulating polypeptide produced in response to bacterial infections. Studies conducted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting have demonstrated its utility as a biomarker of bacterial infection and sepsis. Thus, PCT is widely used to distinguish between sepsis and SIRS, and to guide antibiotic therapy. At present sepsis represents a frequent diagnosis among patients admitted to Internal Medicine (IM) departments. Basing on the knowledge derived from ICU studie...
Source: Panminerva Medica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Panminerva Med Source Type: research
Authors: Bleibtreu A, Bertine M, Bertin C, Houhou-Fidouh N, Visseaux B Abstract Since the first case of human infection by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia in June 2012, more than 2260 cases of confirmed MERS-CoV infection and 803 related deaths have been reported since the 16th of October 2018. The vast majority of these cases (71%) were reported in Saudi Arabia but the epidemic has now spread to 27 countries and has not ceased 6 years later, unlike SARS-CoV that disappeared a little less than 2 years after emerging. Due to the high fatality rate ...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results suggest a greater role of nongenetic factors in PTP inhibitor development. PMID: 31730688 [PubMed]
Source: Blood Research - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Journal of Functional FoodsAuthor(s): Elena Fauste, Silvia Rodrigo, Lourdes Rodríguez, Cristina Donis, Antonia García, Coral Barbas, Juan J. Álvarez-Millán, María I. Panadero, Paola Otero, Carlos BocosAbstractFructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose is allowed in gestation. We have studied how adult male progeny from control (C/F), fructose- (F/F) and glucose-fed (G/F) mothers respond to liquid fructose (10% wt/vol), an...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Samoa declared a state of emergency this weekend, closing all schools and cracking down on public gatherings, after several deaths linked to a measles outbreak that has spread across the Pacific islands.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
ConclusionThe study signifies the development of a potent therapeutic agent comprising of a complex of anti-TB agent (fatty acids) and antioxidants (carotenoids) from the CGF-extracted spent biomass of C. vulgaris.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Mehrazin Noshadian, Zahra Namvarpour, Abdollah Amini, Amir Raoofi, Hadi Atabati, Yousef Sadeghi, Abass Aliaghaei, Modammad-Amin AbdollahifarAbstractThimerosal (THIM) is a common preservative used in many pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines, cosmetics and many other products. Today, it was somewhat clear that Thimerosal (THIM) is a neurotoxicant preservative. We aimed to use of a suitable agent for preventing of THIM side effects on brain. Therefore, in this research, the protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), against TH...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Trends in Food Science &TechnologyAuthor(s): Heera Jayan, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen SunAbstractBackgroundMicrobial contamination is an increasing concern in the food industry. In order to understand the effect of microorganisms, the study of their characteristics and behavior in various platforms is of prime importance. Over the years, time-consuming and labor-intensive, culture-based enumeration techniques have become obsolete for real-time applications, and increasing concerns on foodborne outbreaks necessitate rapid, on-site and sensitive methods for the detection ...
Source: Trends in Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pulsed light (PL) treatment, a novel antimicrobial (LAPEN) wash and combinations thereof in inactivating Salmonella on stem scars of cherry tomato. The treatment effects on background microbiota and sensory quality was also investigated while in storage for 21 days at 10 °C. Three serotypes of Salmonella enterica were chosen to prepare inoculum for the current investigation for their link with tomato and produce outbreaks. Stem scars of tomato were spot inoculated before being treated with PL (1–63 J/cm2), LAPEN sanitizer (2 min) or combinatio...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Authors: Gatti M, Raschi E, De Ponti F Abstract BACKGROUND: The management of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing (KPC) infections represents a major challenge. Several safety and efficacy concerns are shared by available antibiotics used in KPC infections, leading to the occurrence of serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs), with ceftazidime-avibactam possibly showing a more favourable risk-benefit profile. We investigated the potential impact of resistance on ADR reports in countries with different prevalence of KPC isolates (Italy vs. United Kingdom [UK]), and described safety profile of newer and older ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research
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