Pathophysiologic mechanisms, neuroimaging and treatment in wake-up stroke.

Pathophysiologic mechanisms, neuroimaging and treatment in wake-up stroke. CNS Spectr. 2019 Sep 12;:1-8 Authors: Elfil M, Eldokmak M, Baratloo A, Ahmed N, Amin HP, Koo BB Abstract Wake-up stroke (WUS) or ischemic stroke occurring during sleep accounts for 14%-29.6% of all ischemic strokes. Management of WUS is complicated by its narrow therapeutic time window and attributable risk factors, which can affect the safety and efficacy of administering intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This manuscript will review risk factors of WUS, with a focus on obstructive sleep apnea, potential mechanisms of WUS, and evaluate studies assessing safety and efficacy of IV t-PA treatment in WUS patients guided by neuroimaging to estimate time of symptom onset. The authors used PubMed (1966 to March 2018) to search for the term "Wake-Up Stroke" cross-referenced with "pathophysiology," ''pathogenesis," "pathology," "magnetic resonance imaging," "obstructive sleep apnea," or "treatment." English language Papers were reviewed. Also reviewed were pertinent papers from the reference list of the above-matched manuscripts. Studies that focused only on acute Strokes with known-onset of symptoms were not reviewed. Literature showed several potential risk factors associated with increased risk of WUS. Although the onset of WUS is unknown, a few studies investigated the potential benefit of magnetic res...
Source: CNS Spectrums - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThis case series demonstrates that the use of a high frequency jet ventilator for cardiac MRI was feasible, safe, providing good quality cardiac imaging and avoiding anesthesia personnel to be inside the hazardous environment of MRI room. Future studies are needed to confirm its safety and efficiency in pediatric patients.ResumoJustificativa e objetivosA ressonância magnética (RM) cardíaca é uma técnica utilizada na avaliação de crianças com cardiopatias congênitas. A anestesia geral garante imobilidade, especialmente em pacientes não cooperador...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 January 2020Source: NeuroImage, Volume 204Author(s): Rebecca S. Dewey, Susan T. Francis, Hannah Guest, Garreth Prendergast, Rebecca E. Millman, Christopher J. Plack, Deborah A. HallAbstractIn animal models, exposure to high noise levels can cause permanent damage to hair-cell synapses (cochlear synaptopathy) for high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting sensitivity to quiet sounds. This has been confirmed in several mammalian species, but the hypothesis that lifetime noise exposure affects auditory function in humans with normal audiometric thresholds remains unconfirmed and current evidenc...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
We report significant links between the rate of neuroplastic change of cortical surface anatomy, and children's early mathematical skills. In particular, most of the behavioral variance (about 73%) of children's visuospatial abilities was explained by the change in cortical thickness in the right superior parietal cortex. Moreover, half of the behavioral variance (about 55%) of children's arithmetic abilities was explained by the change in cortical folding in the right intraparietal sulcus. Additional associations for arithmetic abilities were found for cortical thickness change of the right temporal lobe, and the left mid...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 January 2020Source: NeuroImage, Volume 204Author(s): Jingjing Chang, Jianping Hu, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Rongjun YuAbstractLife stress has been shown to impact cognitive functions, including inhibitory control. However, the immediate effects of acute stress on inhibitory control and the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. In a behavioral pilot study (N = 30) and a within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 30), we examined how acute stress induced by Trier Social Stress Test influenced inhibitory control in a stop signal task. Behavioral results across two studies showe...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Joanes Grandjean, Carola Canella, Cynthia Anckaerts, Gülebru Ayrancı, Salma Bougacha, Thomas Bienert, David Buehlmann, Ludovico Coletta, Daniel Gallino, Natalia Gass, Clément M. Garin, Nachiket Abhay Nadkarni, Neele Hübner, Meltem Karatas, Yuji Komaki, Silke Kreitz, Francesca Mandino, Anna E. Mechling, Chika Sato, Katja SauerAbstractPreclinical applications of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) offer the possibility to non-invasively probe whole-brain network dynamics and to investigate the determinant...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Aline M. Thomas, Jiadi Xu, Peter A. Calabresi, Peter C.M. van Zijl, Jeff W.M. BulteAbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder that targets myelin proteins and results in extensive damage in the central nervous system in the form of focal lesions as well as diffuse molecular changes. Lesions are currently detected using T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); however, monitoring such lesions has been shown to be a poor predictor of disease progression. Chemical exchange saturation transfer...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This study examines the association between physical activity and screen time with white matter microstructure in the general pediatric population. In a sample of 2,532 children (10.12 ± 0.58 years; 50.04% boys) from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed physical activity and screen time using parent-reported questionnaires. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter microstructure was conducted using diffusion tensor imaging. Total physical activity was positively associated with global fractional anisotropy (β = 0.057, 95% CI = 0.016, 0.098, p...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: Embolism associated with asymptomatic carotid stenosis shows circadian variation with highest rates 4–6 h before midday. This corresponds with peak circadian incidence of stroke and other vascular complications. These and ASED Study results show that monitoring frequency, duration, and time of day are important in ES detection. Introduction Transcranial Doppler (TCD) detected microembolism in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) may help stratify the risk of stroke and other arterial disease complications in persons with advanced (≥60%) asymptomatic carotid stenosis. If so, this techniqu...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Meinel TR, Pult F, Gralla J, Arnold M, Bassetti C, Jung S Abstract A 76-year-old man with a history of arterial hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, dyslipidemia, family history of cardiovascular events, prestroke and overweight presented 90 minutes after acute onset of right-sided sensorimotor hemiparesis, hemiataxia and dysarthria (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 9/42). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pontine ischemia and MR angiography showed a thrombus in the middle to distal portion of the basilar artery. Owing to the location, an occlusion of one lumen of a fenestrate...
Source: Interventional Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Interv Neuroradiol Source Type: research
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is reported to be a risk factor for arterial ischemic stroke, however, relationship between OSAS and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) remains uncertain.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
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