The involvement of the substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor system in viral infection: focus on the gp120 fusion protein and homologous dipeptide domains.
The involvement of the substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor system in viral infection: focus on the gp120 fusion protein and homologous dipeptide domains. Acta Virol. 2019;63(3):253-260 Authors: Muñoz M, Coveñas R, Kramer M Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope, via a key extracellular amino acid sequence, may simulate the functionality of native undecapeptide substance P (SP) acting through the host's neurokinin 1 (SP preferring) receptor (NK-1R). Human monocytes and macrophages express both NK-1Rs and SP. In HIV/AIDS the NK-1R may function as a chemokine-like G-protein coupled co-receptor that: 1) fuses to the outer envelope of HIV; 2) enables intracellular entry of the envelope-capsid-NK-1R complex; 3) co-opts immune defence via its physiological interaction with the SP-like envelope; 4) may contribute to resistance of CD4/chemokine entry inhibitor type drugs; 5) relaxes the blood-brain barrier to support entry of the HIV into the central nervous system, and 6) mediates most of the common clinical sequelae of HIV/AIDS (encephalopathy and AIDS dementia complex). The data support the idea that NK-1R antagonists could be useful to treat HIV/AIDS. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus; NK-1 receptor; NK-1 receptor antagonist; aprepitant; fusion protein; virus. PMID: 31507190 [PubMed - in process]
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Resumo Com o objetivo de efetuar o rastreio do perfil cognitivo dos residentes em Estruturas Para Idosos no Concelho de Miranda do Corvo, avaliaram-se 174 participantes recorrendo ao Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (n=96) e ao diagn óstico de demência reportado nos prontuários dos pacientes (n=78). Verificou-se, através do MMSE, que 41,7% dos inquiridos apresentavam pontuações sugestivas de déficit cognitivo. Adicionando a este resultado o diagnóstico de demência reportado nos prontuários dos pacientes, a percentagem subiu para 67,8% (n=118). A compar...
DISCUSSION: In the future, managers and employees in acute care hospitals will be able to find a wide range of suggestions in comprehensive guidelines from the iso-Institute on the modular implementation of dementia-sensitive hospitals, which is backed up by tried and tested and effective aids to action, instruments, process descriptions, etc. The guidelines will also be available in the form of a comprehensive list of recommendations. PMID: 31628614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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For older adults, hearing aids may delay some forms of mental and physical decline associated with hearing loss and aging, a U.S. study suggests.
This article aims to identify the current state of access to hearing aids, focusing on eight middle- and high-income countries. We discuss how to facilitate greater access to hearing aids for patients by addressing changes in how devices are regulated, technological advancements in hearing devices, the need to adjust reimbursement schemes and the importance of adaptation among the community workforce for hearing-care. PMID: 31656335 [PubMed - in process]
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ConclusionThis study highlights the importance of incorporating an assessment of auditory acuity as part of memory assessment and post-diagnostic care-pathway for people with mild cognitive complaints given the established impact hearing loss has on the future risk for cognitive decline. Hearing loss is frequently unidentified and is a clear modifiable risk factor to promote brain health.
ConclusionHuman contact and a meaningful relationship are superior in preventing loneliness. Individual feelings of loneliness or lack thereof are not directly correlated to the coping mechanisms most commonly employed by individuals with dementia. Further exploration is need to understand how people with dementia, who live at home, perceive or experience loneliness.
A recent study concludes that wearing hearing aids is associated with later onset of dementia and a reduced risk of anxiety, depression, and falls.