Repair of a Damaged Cornea Using Cells Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Since the discovery of induced pluripotency more than a decade ago, researchers have been working towards the use of this technology to produce cells for use in tissue engineering and regenerative therapies. Induced pluripotent stem cells are functionally equivalent to embryonic stem cells; given suitable recipes and methods for the surrounding environment and signals, they can be made to generate any of the cell types in the body. The cornea of the eye is a comparatively simple starting point for tissue engineering, easier to work with in many ways, in generating tissues and in delivering cells to the patient. Here, the first repair of a human cornea is reported, using tissue structures produced from induced pluripotent stem cells. A Japanese woman in her forties has become the first person in the world to have her cornea repaired using reprogrammed stem cells. The woman has a disease in which the stem cells that repair the cornea, a transparent layer that covers and protects the eye, are lost. The condition makes vision blurry and can lead to blindness. To treat the woman, researchers created sheets of corneal cells from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These are made by reprogramming adult skin cells from a donor into an embryonic-like state from which they can transform into other cell types, such as corneal cells. The woman's cornea remained clear and her vision had improved since the transplant a month ago. Currently people with damaged or diseased ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

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In this study, we found two species, Milnesium pacificum sp. nov. and Milnesium tardigradum Doyère, 1840, from three southern islands and two cold regions in Japan, respectively. Milnesium pacificum sp. nov., having dorsal sculpturing, exhibits an early positive change in claw configuration. On the other hand, M. tardigradum s.s. from Japan has an early negative claw configuration change, as has been reported in a recent study on the neotype population of this species. We performed DNA barcoding for both species, which indicated that M. pacificum sp. nov. has a close affinity with an undescribed Milnesium species co...
Source: Zoological Science - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Abstract Having been reported in 1898 for the first time from Japanese waters, the lineid heteronemertean Lineus longifissus auct. is known to inhabit tidal flats under the influence of the warm Kuroshio Current along the coasts of Honshu and southwestward, characteristically with a uniformly raisin-colored to black body lacking a caudal cirrus. The taxonomic identity of the Japanese L. longifissus auct. has been questioned by specialists because of some obvious morphological differences between Lineus longifissus (Hubrecht, 1887) s.str. (now in Heteronemertes Chernyshev, 1995), originally described from the suban...
Source: Zoological Science - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Abstract Batoidea (rays and skates) is a monophyletic subgroup of elasmobranchs that diverged from the common ancestor with Selachii (sharks) about 270 Mya. A larger number of batoids can adapt to low-salinity environments, in contrast to sharks, which are mostly stenohaline marine species. Among osmoregulatory organs of elasmobranchs, the kidney is known to be dedicated to urea retention in ureosmotic cartilaginous fishes. However, we know little regarding urea reabsorbing mechanisms in the kidney of batoids. Here, we performed physiological and histological investigations on the nephrons in the red stingray (Hem...
Source: Zoological Science - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Abstract Condition-specific competition is a phenomenon by which inter-specific competitive dominance changes as a result of environment, and is an important factor determining species distribution. Congeneric charrs in Hokkaido, Japan, provide one of the best examples of condition-specific competition: Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma, often dominate in cold streams (6-8°C), whereas white-spotted charr, Salvelinus leucomaenis, dominate in warmer streams (> 10°C). While past laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated the great advantage of white-spotted charr at higher water temperatures, the adva...
Source: Zoological Science - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Abstract The genetic diversity of the genus Ligidium in Hokkaido and Niigata, northern Japan, was investigated by analyzing the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) region in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The genetic diversity in Hokkaido was much lower than that in Niigata. Nine different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Only a single OTU, most likely Ligidium japonicum, was found in Hokkaido, whereas all nine OTUs were found in Niigata. Using the mtDNA evolutionary rate determined for the marine invertebrate Haptosquilla pulchella (Miers, 1880), population expansion for OTU1 in Hokkaido was e...
Source: Zoological Science - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
In this study, researchers studied 438,952 participants in the UK Biobank, who had a total of 24,980 major coronary events - defined as the first occurrence of non-fatal heart attack, ischaemic stroke, or death due to coronary heart disease. They used an approach called Mendelian randomisation, which uses naturally occurring genetic differences to randomly divide the participants into groups, mimicking the effects of running a clinical trial. People with genes associated with lower blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol, and a combination of both were put into different groups, and compared against those without thes...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, a PET camera was used to examine individual differences in the D2 system in a group consisting of 181 healthy individuals between the age of 64 and 68. All participants also had to take part in an all-inclusive performance test of the long-term episodic memory, working memory and processing speed along with an MRI assessment (which was used to measure the size of various parts of the brain). Researchers could see that the D2 system was positively linked to episodic memory, but not to working memory or to processing speed by relating PET registrations to the cognitive data. Researchers could also see that the...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
STEM CELL PARTNERSHIP: Patient Advocates and Scientists at the International Society for Stem Cell Research Convention By Don C. Reed This year's International Society for Stem Cell Researchers (ISSCR) conference was enormous, three vast floors of San Francisco's magnificent Moscone West convention center. As a watering hole brings animals together, the ISSCR concentrates the world's top stem cell scientists. From around the world they came, four thousand of them this year, representing almost sixty countries. Interspersed with them were patients and patient advocates, those who would benefit most from scientific ad...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
This week in San Diego, Singularity University is holding its Exponential Medicine Conference, a look at how technologists are redesigning and rebuilding today's broken healthcare system. Healthcare today is reactive, retrospective, bureaucratic and expensive. It's sick care, not healthcare. This blog is about why the $3 trillion healthcare system is broken and how we are going to fix it. First, the Bad News: Doctors spend $210 billion per year on procedures that aren’t based on patient need, but fear of liability. Americans spend, on average, $8,915 per person on healthcare – more than any other count...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
The train line from mainland Kobe is a marvel of urban transportation. Opened in 1981, Japan’s first driverless, fully automated train pulls out of Sannomiya station, guided smoothly along elevated tracks that stand precariously over the bustling city streets below, across the bay to the Port Island. The island, and much of the city, was razed to the ground in the Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995 – which killed more than 5,000 people and destroyed more than 100,000 of Kobe’s buildings – and built anew in subsequent years. As the train proceeds, the landscape fills with skyscrapers. The RokkĊ mounta...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
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