Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019 Sep 10;:1-7 Authors: Okunade KS Abstract Cervical cancer is by far the most common HPV-related disease. About 99.7% of cervical cancer cases are caused by persistent genital high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women with an estimated 528,000 new cases reported in 2012. Most HPV infections clear spontaneously but persistent infection with the oncogenic or high-risk types may cause cancer of the oropharynx and anogenital regions. The virus usually infects the mucocutaneous epithelium and produces viral particles in matured epithelial cells and then causes a disruption in normal cell-cycle control and the promotion of uncontrolled cell division leading to the accumulation of genetic damage. There are currently two effective prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection, and these comprise of HPV types 16 and 18, and HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 virus-like particles. HPV testing in the secondary prevention of cervical cancer is clinically valuable in triaging low-grade cytological abnormalities and is also more sensitive than cytology as a primary screening. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in both developed and developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved. PMID: 31500479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Source Type: research

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We report that poor prognosis in this cohort correlates with overexpression of a subset of stemness pathway genes, a majority of which regulate the central Focal Adhesion pathway, and are also found to be enriched in the HPV infection pathway. These observations support therapeutic targeting of stemness genes overexpressed by mucosal cells infected with high-risk HPVs.
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Although it has been established that persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the main cause in the development of cervical cancer, the HR-HPV infection is also related with the cause of a significant fraction of other human malignancies from the mucosal squamous epithelial such as anus, vagina, vulva, penis and oropharynx. HR-HPV infection induces cell proliferation, cell death evasion and genomic instability resulting in cell transformation, due to HPV proteins, which target and modify the function of differents cell molecules and organelles, such as mitochondria. Mitochondr...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis study shows the close association between nasopharyngeal cancer and Epstein –Barr virus whereas such an association is not shown for Human Papillomavirus.
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
es are ancient small DNA viruses and represent the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. In the majority, HPV infection is cleared by an incompletely understood immune response. HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of cervical cancer, and responsible for a proportion of other anogenital cancers including vulval, vaginal, anal and oropharyngeal. Oncogenesis is likely mediated through viral proteins which hijack host-cell machinery in epithelial keratinocytes and disrupt host tumour-suppressor proteins.
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Authors: Okunade KS Abstract Cervical cancer is by far the most common HPV-related disease. About 99.7% of cervical cancer cases are caused by persistent genital high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer in women with an estimated 528,000 new cases reported in 2012. Most HPV infections clear spontaneously but persistent infection with the oncogenic or high-risk types may cause cancer of the oropharynx and anogenital regions. The virus usually infects the mucocutaneous epithelium and produces viral particles in matured epithelial cells and then causes...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Source Type: research
Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) initiates ~5% of all human cancers, and particularly cervical and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV vaccines prevent HPV infection, but do not eliminate existing HPV infections. Papillomaviruses induce hyperproliferation of epithelial cells. In this review we discuss how hyperproliferation renders epithelial cells less sensitive to immune attack, and impacts upon the efficiency of the local immune system. These observations have significance for the design of therapeutic HPV cancer immunotherapies.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Santosh K. Ghosh1*, Thomas S. McCormick1,2 and Aaron Weinberg1* 1Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States 2Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States Human beta-defensins (hBDs, −1, 2, 3) are a family of epithelial cell derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that protect mucosal membranes from microbial challenges. In addition to their antimicrobial activities, they possess other functions; e.g., cell activation, proliferation, regulation of cytokine/chemokine production, migration, diffe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study it was assumed that there was no immunity following resolution of natural infection. The modeling demonstrated that a vaccine of moderate efficacy could have a significant impact on the prevalence of gonorrhea if strategically implemented (23). While encouraging it does, of course, depend on the availability of a vaccine. From Ecological Data to Evidence The epidemiological evidence from Cuba, Brazil, and New Zealand demonstrates that N. meningitidis OMV vaccines are possibly able to provide some broader protection against meningococcal disease (17, 24), particularly in older children and adults (25). These...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: HPV status in oropharyngeal tumors was not correlated with a history of ≥ IIC in cervical examinations. The effect on cervical dysplasia may be masked by a higher incidence of smoking among the OPSCC HPV-negative group. PMID: 30626248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research
Conclusions/Discussion: These findings support the concept that cellular therapy can mediate the regression of epithelial cancers, and they suggest the importance of predictive biomarkers and novel treatment platforms for more effective therapies. PMID: 30518633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
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