Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019 Sep 10;:1-7 Authors: Okunade KS Abstract Cervical cancer is by far the most common HPV-related disease. About 99.7% of cervical cancer cases are caused by persistent genital high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women with an estimated 528,000 new cases reported in 2012. Most HPV infections clear spontaneously but persistent infection with the oncogenic or high-risk types may cause cancer of the oropharynx and anogenital regions. The virus usually infects the mucocutaneous epithelium and produces viral particles in matured epithelial cells and then causes a disruption in normal cell-cycle control and the promotion of uncontrolled cell division leading to the accumulation of genetic damage. There are currently two effective prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection, and these comprise of HPV types 16 and 18, and HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 virus-like particles. HPV testing in the secondary prevention of cervical cancer is clinically valuable in triaging low-grade cytological abnormalities and is also more sensitive than cytology as a primary screening. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in both developed and developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved. PMID: 31500479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Source Type: research

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Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) initiates ~5% of all human cancers, and particularly cervical and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV vaccines prevent HPV infection, but do not eliminate existing HPV infections. Papillomaviruses induce hyperproliferation of epithelial cells. In this review we discuss how hyperproliferation renders epithelial cells less sensitive to immune attack, and impacts upon the efficiency of the local immune system. These observations have significance for the design of therapeutic HPV cancer immunotherapies.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Santosh K. Ghosh1*, Thomas S. McCormick1,2 and Aaron Weinberg1* 1Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States 2Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States Human beta-defensins (hBDs, −1, 2, 3) are a family of epithelial cell derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that protect mucosal membranes from microbial challenges. In addition to their antimicrobial activities, they possess other functions; e.g., cell activation, proliferation, regulation of cytokine/chemokine production, migration, diffe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study it was assumed that there was no immunity following resolution of natural infection. The modeling demonstrated that a vaccine of moderate efficacy could have a significant impact on the prevalence of gonorrhea if strategically implemented (23). While encouraging it does, of course, depend on the availability of a vaccine. From Ecological Data to Evidence The epidemiological evidence from Cuba, Brazil, and New Zealand demonstrates that N. meningitidis OMV vaccines are possibly able to provide some broader protection against meningococcal disease (17, 24), particularly in older children and adults (25). These...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: HPV status in oropharyngeal tumors was not correlated with a history of ≥ IIC in cervical examinations. The effect on cervical dysplasia may be masked by a higher incidence of smoking among the OPSCC HPV-negative group. PMID: 30626248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research
Conclusions/Discussion: These findings support the concept that cellular therapy can mediate the regression of epithelial cancers, and they suggest the importance of predictive biomarkers and novel treatment platforms for more effective therapies. PMID: 30518633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: Tumor regression can occur following treatment of an epithelial cancer with gene-engineered T cells. These findings support continued study of E7 T cells and possibly other types of gene-engineered T cells in epithelial cancers.DisclosuresAdhikary: Kite Pharma: Employment. Schweitzer: Kite Pharma: Employment. Astrow: Kite Pharma: Employment. Hinrichs: Kite Pharma: Research Funding; NIH: Patents &Royalties: NIH patents related to cell therapy.
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 801. Gene Therapy and Transfer: Clinical Trials for Hemophilia and Using CAR T Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017 Source:The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics Author(s): Sixto M. Leal, Margaret L. Gulley Laboratory tests have a key role in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV)–driven carcinomas and in guiding therapeutic interventions. An understanding of the virology, immunology, and carcinogenesis of HPV is essential for choosing appropriate diagnostic test modalities and developing new and even more effective cancer prevention strategies. HPV infects basal epithelial cells on multiple surfaces and induces carcinoma primarily in the cervix and the oropharynx. HPV types are strat...
Source: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
High-risk mucosal α-Human papillomaviruses (α-HPV) are linked to cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Persistent infection with high-risk α-HPV can cause epithelial hyperplasia, leading to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. Additionally, cutaneous β-HPV are strongly associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in a specific group of patients and many recent studies have focused on the etiological role of β-HPV for cSCC and actinic keratosis (AK). However, the correlation between high-risk α-HPV and cSCC remains to be well defined, with previous rep...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Clinical Outcomes Source Type: research
Human papillomavirus oncogenic E6 protein regulates human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) expression via the tumor suppressor protein p53. Oncotarget. 2016 Mar 28; Authors: DasGupta T, Nweze EI, Yue H, Wang L, Jin J, Ghosh SK, Kawsar HI, Zender C, Androphy EJ, Weinberg A, McCormick TS, Jin G Abstract Human β-defensin-3 (hBD3) is an epithelial cell-derived innate immune regulatory molecule overexpressed in oral dysplastic lesions and fosters a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Expression of hBD3 is induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Here we describe a novel pathway through ...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The maternal and neonatal HPV colonization mechanism is essentially, but not exclusively, transvaginal. PMID: 26275464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Otorrinolaringologica Espanola - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp Source Type: research
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