Prolactin and autoimmunity: the hormone as an inflammatory cytokine

Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Vânia Vieira Borba, Gisele Zandman-Goddard, Yehuda ShoenfeldAbstractNowadays, more than 80 autoimmune disorders are recognized, in which an aberrant immune response against different organs and tissues plays a crucial role. Hormonal homeostasis has great influence in achieving competent and healthy immune system function. Prolactin has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It influences the immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes. Hyperprolactinemia has been detected in many patients with different autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, systemic sclerosis, among others, and its believed to play a crucial role in disease pathogenesis. A direct correlation between prolactin levels and disease activity was not clear. Genetic factors may have a role in humans as in animal models. Dopamine agonists have proven to offer clinical benefits among autoimmune patients and represent a promising therapy to be explored. In this review, the authors attempt to provide a critical overview on the role of prolactin in the immune system, exploring its contribution to the development of autoimmune diseases.
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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