Lipoarabinomannan in Active and Passive Protection Against Tuberculosis

Glycolipids of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are important immunomodulators in tuberculosis. In particular, lipoarabinomannan (LAM) has a profound effect on the innate immune response. LAM and its structural variants can be recognized by and activate human CD1b-restricted T cells, and emerging evidence indicates that B cells and antibodies against LAM can modulate the immune response to Mtb. Anti-LAM antibodies are induced during Mtb infection and after bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination, and monoclonal antibodies against LAM have been shown to confer protection by passive administration in mice and guinea pigs. In this review, we describe the immune response against LAM and the potential use of the mannose-capped arabinan moiety of LAM in the construction of vaccine candidates against tuberculosis.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest diseases, causing ~2 million deaths annually worldwide. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only TB vaccine in common use, is effective against disseminated and meningeal TB in young children but is not effective against adult pulmonary TB. T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-) and Th17 cells producing interleukin-17 (IL-17) play key roles in host protection against TB, whereas Th2 cells producing IL-4 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) facilitate TB disease progression by inhibiting protective Th1 and Th17 responses. Furthermore, the longe...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
The administration of a high fat content diet is an accelerating factor for metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and early type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to assess the impact of a high fat diet on tuberculosis progression and microbiota composition in an experimental animal model using a C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain submitted to single or multiple consecutive aerosol infections. These models allowed us to study the protection induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination as well as by the natural immunity induced by chemotherapy after a low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our results show ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Pu F, Feng J, Yang L, Zhang L, Xia P Abstract Compared to other diseases, early or atypical spinal tuberculosis (TB) is prone to being misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations and misleading negative results of various laboratory analyses and imaging examinations. Various methods for diagnosing spinal TB have become research hotspots. Recently, it has been proposed that effective vaccination is a mainstay of long-term policies to combat and control the TB epidemic. However, some new TB vaccines require further evaluation and clinical trials to demonstrate their efficiency and safety...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: IDCasesAuthor(s): Lazara Karelia Montane Jaime, Patrick E. Akpaka, Sehlule Vuma, Angel A Justiz-VaillantAbstractA 56-year-old woman who vaccinated as a child with the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), now tests positive to the tuberculin skin test (TST) but test negative to the Quantiferon Gold assay. She has no history of tuberculosis contact and is asymptomatic. This dilemma now is, should be treated for tuberculosis or not, based only on the TST results? To prevent these false positive results with TST and avoid treatment with isoniazid (INH) it may be helpful to u...
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of two attenuated vaccines, BCG and MTBVAC, after each was given to 17 goats (2  months old) and then exposed for 9 months to goats infected withM. caprae. In general, MTBVAC-vaccinated goats showed higher interferon-gamma release than BCG vaccinated goats in response to bovine protein purified derivative and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens and the response was significantly higher than that observed in the control group until challenge. All animals showed lesions consistent with TB at the end of the study. Goats that received either vaccine showed significantly ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
A tuberculosis vaccine commonly used in other parts of the world might reduce a person's risk of developing lung cancer if given early in childhood, a six-decade-long study reports.
Source: WebMD Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
TUESDAY, Oct. 1, 2019 -- A tuberculosis vaccine commonly used in other parts of the world might reduce a person's risk of developing lung cancer if given early in childhood, a six-decade-long study reports. The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine...
Source: - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
Research will help advance TB vaccine development.
Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases - Category: American Health Source Type: news
In this study, we evaluated global M. tuberculosis-induced gene expression in airway immune cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) and M. tuberculosis-naive controls. In prior studies, we demonstrated that BAL cells from LTBI individuals display substantial enrichment for M. tuberculosis-responsive CD4+ T cells compared with matched peripheral blood samples. We therefore specifically assessed the impact of the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells on M. tuberculosis-induced BAL cell gene expression in LTBI. Our studies identified 12 canonical pathways and a 47-gene signat...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The concordance between PT and IGRA is affected in patients with EIMI, and to a greater extent to patients with the inflammatory bowel disease, with the corticotherapy, with the BCG vaccination, or in the ones from endemic countries. PMID: 31523944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Rev Esp Quimioter Source Type: research
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