Androgens in Menopausal Women: Not Only Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Androgens in Menopausal Women: Not Only Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Front Horm Res. 2019;53:135-161 Authors: Kostakis EK, Gkioni LN, Macut D, Mastorakos G Abstract Menopause is the period of a woman's life that is characterized by the permanent cessation of menses associated to hormonal changes, of which the most important is the decrease of estrogen levels. Following menopause, the concentrations of circulating androgens decrease. However, increased concentrations of luteinizing hormone induce androgens secretion from the ovaries and presumably from the adrenal glands. Peripheral conversion of androgens results to the circulating hormonal androgen profile. Some pathological conditions are associated with greater concentrations of androgens after menopause than in controls, with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) being the commonest. These conditions can be distinguished in non-tumorous (adrenal or ovarian) or functional and tumorous (adrenal or ovarian benign or malignant) masses. Apart from PCOS, other non-tumorous (adrenal or ovarian) causes of hyperandrogenism in post-menopausal women are obesity, non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH), endocrinopathies, such as Cushing disease or acromegaly; ovarian hyperthecosis, drug use or abuse. Tumorous (adrenal or ovarian) causes include adrenal cortical cancers, adrenal benign adenomas and even incidentalomas, or ovarian tumors such as the sex-cord stromal ovarian tumors and metastases in the ovary. T...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

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Source: Der Hautarzt: Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete - Category: Dermatology Tags: Hautarzt Source Type: research
Authors: Ali S, Sirota E, Ali H, Bezrukov E, Okhunov Z, Bukatov M, Letunovskiy A, Grygoriev N, Taratkin M, Vovdenko S, Afyouni A, Alyaev Y Abstract Objective: We sought to improve the educational and pre-operative training on various stages of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) under fluoroscopic and ultrasound guidance. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) printed simulator (3D-printed PCNL model) for urological trainees.Methods: 40 s year urology residents were randomly assigned into two groups, completing PCNL surgical steps on a URO Mentor™ surgical simulator (Group A) or on our new 3D-printed PC...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Scand J Urol Source Type: research
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Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
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Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
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Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
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