The potential of exosomes in the therapy of the cartilage and bone complications; emphasis on osteoarthritis

Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Ramin Pourakbari, Meysam Khodadadi, Ali Aghebati-Maleki, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Mehdi YousefiAbstractOsteoarthritis is a prevalent worldwide joint disease, which demonstrates a remarkable adverse effect on the patients' life modality. Medicinal agents, exclusively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have been routinely applied in the clinic. But, their effects are restricted to pain control with insignificant effects on cartilage renovation, which would finally lead to cartilage destruction. In the field of regenerative medicine, many researchers have tried to use stem cells to repair tissues and other human organs. However, in recent years, with the discovery of extracellular microvesicles, especially exosomes, researchers have been able to offer more exciting alternatives on the subject. Exosomes and microvesicles are derived from different types of bone cells such as mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. They are also recognized to play substantial roles in bone remodeling processes including osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and angiogenesis. Specifically, exosomes derived from a mesenchymal stem cell have shown a great potential for the desired purpose. Exosomal products include miRNA, DNA, proteins, and other factors. At present, if it is possible to extract exosomes from various stem cells effectively and load certain products or drugs into them, they can be us...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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iz ML Abstract Joint conditions pose an important public health problem as they are a leading cause of pain, functional limitation and physical disability. Oxidative stress is related to the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases affecting the joints such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Cells have developed adaptive protection mechanisms to maintain homeostasis such as nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related transcription factor (Nrf2) which regulates the transcription of many genes involved in redox balance, detoxification, metabolism and inflammation. Activation of Nrf2 results in the synthesis of ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that has a great impact on different joints, may result in their destruction and loss of function. Although the shoulder is affected in a large portion of patients with RA, it does not receive much attention during the follow up of RA. The precise diagnosis of shoulder pain in RA is a clinical challenge and benefits from a reliable imaging modality to detect its exact origin.AimTo determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US) in detecting shoulder joint pathologies in RA, considering magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the gold standard.Mat...
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Authors: Pincus T, Castrejon I, Yazici Y, Gibson KA, Bergman MJ, Block JA Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) may be associated with substantial work disability, morbidity, costs, and increased mortality rates, often similar to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), documented in many published reports over the last 4 decades. However, OA generally has been viewed as less severe than RA. This discrepancy may be explained in part by:a) RA may have been considerably more severe in the past, prior to effective therapies.b) most older individuals have radiographic joint damage, which often is not associated with clinical symptoms.c) RA i...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
Authors: Pincus T, Schmukler J, Castrejon I Abstract A patient history generally provides the most important information in diagnosis and management of patients with most rheumatic diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). Patient history components can be expressed as quantitative, structured, "scientific" data, rather than "subjective" narrative descriptions, using patient self-report questionnaires. The Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) questionnaire is used in all OA clinical trials, and the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) in all rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical trials, as "diseas...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
Authors: Cleveland RJ, Nelson AE, Callahan LF Abstract Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are common, with osteoarthritis (OA) being the most prevalent. RMDs, including OA, are associated with significant pain and functional limitations, as well as mortality rates up to 1.6-fold higher than in the general population. Most studies of OA and mortality have focused on knee and hip OA. Some, but not all, of these studies suggest an increased risk of death, however risks may differ by region. Reasons for discordant findings may be due to methodological considerations including definition of OA, study design, ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
ConclusionThe definite diagnosis was not defined via vigorous myopathic and rheumatologic investigations. Detailed clinical examination and skeletal survey, followed by genotypic confirmation, were our fundamental pointers to rule out the false diagnosis of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatoid polyarthritis in the adult group of patients. We wish to stress that the clinical/radiological phenotype is the baseline tool to establish a definite diagnosis and to guide the geneticist toward proper genotype.Key Points•Joint pain and difficulties in walking/climbing the stairs are characteristic features encountered i...
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
In 1975, researchers from Yale investigated an epidemic of 51 patients with arthritis who lived near the woodsy town of Lyme, Connecticut. The most common symptom was recurrent attacks of knee swelling. A few had pain in other joints, such as the wrist or ankle. Many had fever, fatigue, and headache. Some remembered a round skin rash before the onset of knee swelling. We now know that Lyme disease is an infection acquired from tick bites, caused by a spiral bacterium named Borrelia burgdorferi. After a tick bite, Borrelia bacteria wriggle through the skin away from the bite site. This leads to a circular red rash, known as...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Arthritis Bones and joints Infectious diseases Source Type: blogs
Objective The aim of the study was to assess the time effect of intra-articular injection with triamcinolone hexacetonide in rheumatic patients. Design A prospective case-control study with patients submitted to one intra-articular injection with triamcinolone hexacetonide. Patients were followed monthly (12 mos) for pain and swelling. Results Two hundred sixty-two joints were assessed in 158 patients with mean ± SD age of 60 ± 13.7 yrs. Remission was observed at 3, 6, and 12 mos in 142 (54.19%), 111 (42.36%), and 105 (40.07%) joints, respectively. The mean ± SD time effect were 8 ± 4.0 ...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research
Our body is flexible due the joints. These joints connect two bones, provide support and help in the body parts movement. Joint pain is a feeling of discomfort, aches and soreness in any of our body ’s joint. There have been lots of cases of people having aches in their joints. These joint pains are due to injuries affecting the ligaments, bursae, or tendons surrounding the joint. Pain in the joints is also due to infection and inflammation and in an extremely rare case because of cancer. It becomes extremely painful when you try to move your body parts suffering this pain.There are different conditions which are res...
Source: radRounds - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, autoimmune disease that affects joints and extra-articular structures. In the last decade, the management of this chronic disease has dramatically changed with the introduction of several targeted mechanisms of action, such as tumor necrosis factor- α inhibition, T-cell costimulation inhibition, B-cell depletion, interleukin-6 blockade, and Janus kinase inhibition. Beyond its well-known hematopoietic role on the proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a proinflammatory medi ator acting as a cytokine...
Source: Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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