Role of stem cells in fertility preservation: current insights.

Role of stem cells in fertility preservation: current insights. Stem Cells Cloning. 2019;12:27-48 Authors: Vermeulen M, Giudice MG, Del Vento F, Wyns C Abstract While improvements made in the field of cancer therapy allow high survival rates, gonadotoxicity of chemo- and radiotherapy can lead to infertility in male and female pre- and postpubertal patients. Clinical options to preserve fertility before starting gonadotoxic therapies by cryopreserving sperm or oocytes for future use with assisted reproductive technology (ART) are now applied worldwide. Cryopreservation of pre- and postpubertal ovarian tissue containing primordial follicles, though still considered experimental, has already led to the birth of healthy babies after autotransplantation and is performed in an increasing number of centers. For prepubertal boys who do not produce gametes ready for fertilization, cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue (ITT) containing spermatogonial stem cells may be proposed as an experimental strategy with the aim of restoring fertility. Based on achievements in nonhuman primates, autotransplantation of ITT or testicular cell suspensions appears promising to restore fertility of young cancer survivors. So far, whether in two- or three-dimensional culture systems, in vitro maturation of immature male and female gonadal cells or tissue has not demonstrated a capacity to produce safe gametes for ART. Recently, primordial germ cells have been generated from...
Source: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications - Category: Stem Cells Tags: Stem Cells Cloning Source Type: research

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ConclusionsWomen with an early stage of breast cancer and a possible future child wish should be referred to an expertise center in breast cancer, fertility preservation, and genetics in this complex decision-making process, shortly after diagnosis.
Source: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionAMH is an important hormone especially in women reproductive organs and is currently seen as the best biomarker for a multitude of uses in reproductive medicine. Currently, the biggest issue lies in the lack of international standardization of AMH. However, it is encouraging to see that there is interest in AMH in the form of research on its action and use in reproductive medicine.
Source: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Purpose of review To investigate the JZE alterations in gynecological and obstetrical disorders and impact on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Recent findings JZE was found to be significantly extended in patients with endometriosis, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis is a primary disease of the uterus, much like adenomyosis. Statistical correlation was then demonstrated between the severity of endometriosis and the depth of the adenomyosis infiltrates, hence the thickening of the JZE. Stem cells, predominantly found in the JZE were also found in histological sections of leiomyoma, suggested to be the ori...
Source: Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: WOMEN'S HEALTH: Edited by Joseph Aquilina Source Type: research
ConclusionEndometrial cancer, specifically type I endometrioid adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions are strongly associated with unopposed estrogen states such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), obesity as well as nulliparity. Patients seeking assisted reproductive technologies make up a subset of these patients and strongly desire to maintain their fertility. Progesterone therapy for select patients may be a safe and effective temporary treatment for endometrial carcinoma and atypical precursor lesions prior to starting IVF-ET. IVF-ET is very effective in treating such patients.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Quality of life transplantations (e.g. hand, face, etc.), in contrast to life-saving transplantations (e.g. heart, lungs, etc.), have become increasingly popular and have gained more acceptance in the medical and lay communities. In the last two decades transplants for sexual and reproductive organs—specifically allogenic transplantations of the uterus, ovary, and penis—have emerged as yet another type of quality of life transplants. The purpose of uterus transplantations is to allow cisgender women with absolute uterine factor infertility to experience pregnancy. Although the first uterus transplantation took ...
Source: blog.bioethics.net - Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Tags: Health Care assisted reproduction feminist ethics reproductive medicine Sex and Sexuality surgical ethics syndicated transplantation Women's Reproductive Rights Source Type: blogs
Heterogeneity of Stem Cells in the Ovary. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1169:213-223 Authors: Bhartiya D, Patel H, Sharma D Abstract Every organ in the body is thought to harbor two populations of stem cells, including the quiescent and the actively dividing, that leads to heterogeneity among them. It is generally believed that the ovary harbors a fixed number of follicles at birth that differentiate during fetal development from the primordial germ cells. The numbers of follicles decrease by age, leading to menopause. However, in 2004, it was suggested that ovary may harbor stem cells that are possibly ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: FSS is not associated with worse oncologic outcomes than RS in young women with early stage NEOC. The prognosis was excellent in both groups, with an OS of 98%. Natural fertility was maintained in women treated with FSS, only 12% required ART treatment. PMID: 31493900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Gynecologic Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
Gonadotoxic cancer treatments adversely impact ovarian reserve, but it is unknown if they are related to clinical infertility in AYA cancer survivors. We tested the hypothesis that alkylating chemotherapy (AC) and abdomino-pelvic radiation (RT) increase risks of infertility after cancer.
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Poster session Source Type: research
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) refers to ovarian loss of function under the age of 40 years and lead those patients to usually present by amenorrhea and infertility. One of the reasons of POI is chemotherapy for cancer patients. It is broadly believed that chemotherapy drugs may vastly eliminate granulosa cells which are essential for oocyte survival and follicular development. Our previous study shows that transplantation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (hBM-MSC) in chemotherapy induced POI mouse ovary can reverse POI through correction of serum hormonal level, promote follicular generation in ovar...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Poster session Source Type: research
Abstract Ovarian toxicity and infertility are major side effects of cancer therapy in young female cancer patients. We and others have previously demonstrated that doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic chemicals, has a dose-dependent toxicity on growing follicles. However, it is not fully understood if the primordial follicles are the direct or indirect target of DOX. Using both prepubertal and young adult female mouse models, we comprehensively investigated the effect of DOX on all developmental stages of follicles, determined the impact of DOX on primordial follicle survival, activation...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research
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