The Role of Natural Killer Cells as a Platform for Immunotherapy in Pediatric Cancers

AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aim to review the most recent findings in the use of NK cells in childhood cancers.Recent FindingsNatural killer cells are cytotoxic to tumor cells. In pediatric leukemias, adoptive transfer of NK cells can bridge children not in remission to transplant. Interleukins (IL2, IL15) can enhance NK cell function. NK cell-CAR therapy has advantages of shorter life span that lessens chronic toxicities, lower risk of graft versus host disease when using allogeneic cells, ability of NK cells to recognize tumor cells that have downregulated MHC to escape T cells, and possibly less likelihood of cytokine storm. Cytotoxicity to solid tumors (rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing ’s sarcoma, neuroblastoma) is seen with graft versus tumor effect in transplant and in combination with antibodies. Challenges lie in the microenvironment which is suppressive for NK cells.SummaryNK cell immunotherapy in childhood cancers is promising and recent works aim to overcome challenges.
Source: Current Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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