Toward T Cell-Mediated Control or Elimination of HIV Reservoirs: Lessons From Cancer Immunology

As the AIDS epidemic unfolded, the appearance of opportunistic infections in at-risk persons provided clues to the underlying problem: a dramatic defect in cell-mediated immunity associated with infection and depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Moreover, the emergence of HIV-associated malignancies in these same individuals was a clear indication of the significant role effective cellular immunity plays in combating cancers. As research in the HIV field progressed, advances included the first demonstration of the role of PD-1 in human T cell exhaustion, and the development of gene-modified T cell therapies, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. In the intervening years, the oncology field has capitalized on these advances, effectively mobilizing the cellular immune response to achieve immune-mediated remission or cure of previously intractable cancers. Although similar therapeutic advances have not yet been achieved in the HIV field, spontaneous CD8+ T cell mediated remission or functional cure of HIV infection does occur in very small subset of individuals in the absence of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). This has many similarities to the CD8+ T cell mediated functional control or elimination of cancers, and indicates that immunotherapy for HIV is a rational goal. In HIV infection, one major barrier to successful immunotherapy is the small, persistent population of infected CD4+ T cells, the viral reservoir, which evades pharmacological and immune-mediated clearance...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Authors: Orem J Abstract Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumour of endothelial origin that is associated with human herpes virus-8 infection. In sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS-KS remains the most common HIV-associated malignancy, and hence it poses a huge burden to the already constrained health-care systems. KS has four clinical variants, namely, classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic KS. The histopathology in these different KS forms is essentially identical; however, they have different clinical patterns. Expanding knowledge of KS biology increases hope for prevention, disease control, and hence better quality ...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2019Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Joseph Kagaayi, Larry W Chang, Victor Ssempijja, M Kate Grabowski, Robert Ssekubugu, Gertrude Nakigozi, Godfrey Kigozi, David M Serwadda, Ronald H Gray, Fred Nalugoda, Nelson K Sew.ambo, Lisa Nelson, Lisa A Mills, Donna Kabatesi, Stella Alamo, Caitlin E Kennedy, Aaron A R Tobian, John S Santelli, Anna Mia Ekström, Helena NordenstedtSummaryBackgroundTargeting combination HIV interventions to locations and populations with high HIV burden is a global priority, but the impact of these strategies on HIV incidence is unclear. We assessed t...
Source: The Lancet HIV - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives It is interesting that watershed events, such as the loss of Neu5Gc from the glycocalyx of human cells have occurred numerous times in many mammalian and other vertebrate species. These cases of convergent evolution represent precious opportunities for increased understanding of evolutionary processes. In some respects, Neu5Gc is an ideal self-molecule as it is “private” to vertebrates and, based on current data, has yet to be successfully mimicked by microbes. Against the background of this benefit, the loss of Neu5Gc appears paradoxical and may implicate strong selective regimes,...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Yuka Nadai1,2, Kathrin Held1,2, Sarah Joseph3, Mohamed I. M. Ahmed1,2, Verena S. Hoffmann1,2, David Peterhoff4, Marco Missanga5, Asli Bauer1,5, Agricola Joachim6, Ulf Reimer7, Johannes Zerweck7, Sheena McCormack3, Alethea V. Cope8, Roger Tatoud8, Robin J. Shattock8, Merlin Lee Robb9, Eric G. Sandstroem10, Michael Hoelscher1,2, Leonard Maboko5, Muhammad Bakari6, Arne Kroidl1,2, Ralf Wagner4,11, Jonathan Weber8, Georgios Pollakis12 and Christof Geldmacher1,2* 1Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany 2German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner S...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Eun-Ju Ko, Sabrina Helmold Hait, Gospel Enyindah-Asonye, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Tanya Hoang and Marjorie Robert-Guroff* Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States Inducing strong mucosal immune responses by vaccination is important for providing protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant vector (Ad5hr) expressing SIV proteins induced mucosal immune responses in rectal tissue associated with delayed SIV acquisition in female rhesus macaques, but the initial mechanisms leading to the induced immu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that in the presence of an HIV-1 infection, the cellular distribution of FcγRIIIa is altered and that the functional consequence of FcγRIIIa variant is affected. Importantly, it underscores the need to characterize FcγR expression, cellular distribution and functional consequences of FcγR genetic variants within a specific environment or disease state. Introduction Receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG), so called Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), link the specificity of IgG with potent effector functions of the innate immune system. Fc&ga...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we included data previously published by our group from patients followed-up at HFI and all HIV-1 sequences obtained by NGS publicly available. A detailed description of the studied populations can be found in their respective articles (Pessoa et al., 2015, 2016; Alves et al., 2017). We focused on the HIV-1 subtype classification, identification of HIV recombinants and multiple infection investigation for our novel patients. As previous published, the patients from HFI were mostly males (75%) with a median age of 38 years at the time of sample collection. Regarding our new cohort, we also found a prevalence ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
President Donald Trump’s proposed 2020 budget includes nearly $300 million meant to “defeat the HIV/AIDS epidemic” in the U.S. — even as it calls for a 12% reduction in total funding to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). During his February State of the Union address, Trump announced an ambitious plan to “eliminate the HIV epidemic in the United States within 10 years.” During a subsequent call with reporters, health officials said the initiative would focus on 48 at-risk counties across the country and would involve promoting early HIV treatment and diagnosis, expanding ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized HIV/AIDS Source Type: news
About 1.1 million Americans currently live with HIV, and approximately 40,000 are infected each year, according to federal data. But in his State of the Union address, President Donald Trump promised to “eliminate the HIV epidemic in the United States within 10 years” — a plan that hinges on a multi-agency push for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention in at-risk communities, health officials said Wednesday. Trump introduced the plan during his annual address on Tuesday but offered few details. Health officials fleshed out the plan during a call with reporters on Wednesday. The initiative will be ove...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized healthytime HIV/AIDS onetime Source Type: news
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