How Good are Masks for Preventing Infection?

Discussion With continued exposure to respiratory pathogens and the emergence of novel respiratory pathogens, personal protective equipment (PPE) and procedures are important for decreasing occupational exposure to respiratory pathogens. PPE and procedures are particularly important when anti-infective treatments or vaccination are unavailable or have limited effectiveness. Medical masks are “[a]lso known as a surgical or procedure mask. As personal protective equipment, a facial mask is intended to protect caregivers and health-care workers against droplet-transmitted pathogens, or to serve as part of facial protection for patient-care activities that are likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions. ” “N95 respirators are specifically designed to protect users from small airborne particles including aerosols…. Strict regulations dictate the filtration efficiency and breathing resistance for N95 respirators, which also require fit-testing to ensure a tight seal around the user’s face….” Mask and respirator studies are difficult to conduct because of user compliance and limited statistical power to evaluate mask and respiratory effectiveness. Therefore guidelines are based on limited evidence of their effectiveness. Various other types of masks can be used for other protective measures such as reducing particulate matter in areas of air pollution. Other masks used for recreational and occupa...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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Authors: Carbonell-Estrany X, Rodgers-Gray BS, Paes B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes approximately 120,000 deaths annually in children
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Fundus imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of patients with posterior uveitis due to tuberculosis. Fundus imaging may have a useful role in defining clinical endpoints for ocular tuberculosis in the future. PMID: 32976732 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Authors: Agrawal R PMID: 32976047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This case highlights that rare vascular alterations such as RAP can develop in subjects with ocular tuberculosis. PMID: 32976040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Authors: Miserocchi E, Giuffrè C, Modorati GM, Cimaz R Abstract Italy was the first European country to be affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this scenario, we had to face a new clinical approach in our Pediatric Rheumatology Unit for the management of patients affected by juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. During the lockdown (phase 1), the weekly outpatient clinic was discontinued and telephone consultations were set up. A toll-free telephone number was instituted for emergencies. None of our children with JIA-associated uveitis was advised to stop the ongoing immunosuppressant sy...
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Neath Port Talbot, Torfaen and the Vale of Glamorgan face further measures; Le Monde reports32% of outbreaks in France found in schools or universitiesRegular ‘circuit breaker’ lockdowns ‘could help control Covid’Minister refuses to guarantee students will be home for ChristmasBoris Johnson faces revolt over forcing through Covid measuresAustralia: ‘We should not pretend everybody is suffering equally’See all our coronavirus coverage2.50pmBSTInMarseille,a coronavirus hotspot, the city ’s top flight football team has been given a government order to play behind closed doors. InGerma...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak France UK news Europe Infectious diseases Science World news Saudi Arabia Japan South Korea Australia news Source Type: news
Authors: Zhao JW, Jiao L, Guo MM, Zheng L, Wang XB, Gao SH, Ying BW, Ming L Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. The surfactant protein C (SFTPC), which is involved in innate immunity and surfactant function in the lung, may contribute toward the progression of TB. The aim of the present study was to preliminarily investigate the possible association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SFTPC gene with TB susceptibility and clinical phenotypes in a Western Chinese Han population. The improved multiplex ligation detection reaction method was used to genotype ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
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Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Active Citizens Development & Aid Economy & Trade Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
Across China, the virus that could spark the next pandemic is already circulating. It’s a bird flu called H7N9, and true to its name, it mostly infects poultry. Lately, however, it’s started jumping from chickens to humans more readily–bad news, because the virus is a killer. During a recent spike, 88% of people infected got pneumonia, three-quarters ended up in intensive care with severe respiratory problems, and 41% died. What H7N9 can’t do–yet–is spread easily from person to person, but experts know that could change. The longer the virus spends in humans, the better the chance that i...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized CDC Disease ebola Gates Foundation MERS outbreak pandemic Zika Source Type: news
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