How Good are Masks for Preventing Infection?

Discussion With continued exposure to respiratory pathogens and the emergence of novel respiratory pathogens, personal protective equipment (PPE) and procedures are important for decreasing occupational exposure to respiratory pathogens. PPE and procedures are particularly important when anti-infective treatments or vaccination are unavailable or have limited effectiveness. Medical masks are “[a]lso known as a surgical or procedure mask. As personal protective equipment, a facial mask is intended to protect caregivers and health-care workers against droplet-transmitted pathogens, or to serve as part of facial protection for patient-care activities that are likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions. ” “N95 respirators are specifically designed to protect users from small airborne particles including aerosols…. Strict regulations dictate the filtration efficiency and breathing resistance for N95 respirators, which also require fit-testing to ensure a tight seal around the user’s face….” Mask and respirator studies are difficult to conduct because of user compliance and limited statistical power to evaluate mask and respiratory effectiveness. Therefore guidelines are based on limited evidence of their effectiveness. Various other types of masks can be used for other protective measures such as reducing particulate matter in areas of air pollution. Other masks used for recreational and occupa...
Source: - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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ConclusionMLL remains to be underdiagnosed. Due to the obesity epidemic, clinicians must be aware of this once rare disease. The role of concurrent bariatric surgery with surgical resection of MLL warrants further studies.
Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Microbiological ResearchAuthor(s): Tengteng Lv, Fa Dai, Qiuting Zhuang, Xuelin Zhao, Yina Shao, Ming Guo, Zhimeng Lv, Chenghua Li, Weiwei ZhangAbstractOuter membrane protein U (OmpU) is a major porin from Vibrio alginolyticus and has been considered a vaccine candidate against infection by V. alginolyticus. After pre-incubated with polyclonal antibody against rOmpU, V. alginolyticus showed a 78% decrease in extracellular iron level, suggesting that interruption of OmpU could increase intracellular iron level. The mRNA expression of ompU under iron-limited conditions...
Source: Microbiological Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Kristen Pogreba-Brown, Erika Austhof, Katherine EllingsonThe case–case study design is a potentially useful tool for infection preventionists during outbreak or cluster investigations. This column clarifies terminology related to case–case, case–control, and case-case-control study designs. Examples of practical applications of the case–case study design include determining risk factors for health care–onset versus community-onset infections, or antibiotic-resistant versus antibiotic-susceptible infections.
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe longstanding ethnopharmacological tradition of natural remedies against ARIs highlights their therapeutic impact and remains a highly valuable selection criterion for natural materials to be investigated in the search for novel anti-ARI acting concepts. We observe a tendency towards assaying for broad-spectrum antivirals and antibacterials mainly discovered in interdisciplinary academic settings, and ascertain a clear demand for more translational studies to strengthen efforts for the development of effective and safe therapeutic agents for patients suffering from ARIs.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that miR-708-5p level was upregulated in macrophages after M.tb infection. And miR-708-5p could regulate mycobacterial vitality and inflammatory response to M.tb infection in human macrophages by targeting TLR4. PMID: 31599428 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
[The Herald] French President Emmanuel Macron reserved rare praise for Zimbabwe for its deepened fight against HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Firearm injuries are a public health crisis in the United States. The mainstream media highlights the senseless mass shootings that continue to happen, yet that is just the tip of the iceberg. The lack of federal dollars appropriated to this epidemic ov...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
DAVID E. BLOOM is the Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and Demography, DANIEL CADARETTE is a research assistant, and JP SEVILLA is a research associate, all at Harvard University’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health.By David E. Bloom, Daniel Cadarette and JP SevillaWASHINGTON DC, Jul 3 2018 (IPS)Infectious diseases and associated mortality have abated, but they remain a significant threat throughout the world.We continue to fight both old pathogens, such as the plague, that have troubled humanity for millennia and new pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that have mutated or spilled over ...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Active Citizens Development & Aid Economy & Trade Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
Across China, the virus that could spark the next pandemic is already circulating. It’s a bird flu called H7N9, and true to its name, it mostly infects poultry. Lately, however, it’s started jumping from chickens to humans more readily–bad news, because the virus is a killer. During a recent spike, 88% of people infected got pneumonia, three-quarters ended up in intensive care with severe respiratory problems, and 41% died. What H7N9 can’t do–yet–is spread easily from person to person, but experts know that could change. The longer the virus spends in humans, the better the chance that i...
Source: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized CDC Disease ebola Gates Foundation MERS outbreak pandemic Zika Source Type: news
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