Experience during adolescence shapes brain development: From synapses and networks to normal and pathological behavior

This report will summarize some examples of adaptation which occur during adolescence and some evidence that the adolescent brain responds differently to stimuli compared to adults and children.This symposium, “Experience during adolescence shapes brain development: from synapses and networks to normal and pathological behavior” occurred during the Developmental Neurotoxicology Society/Teratology Society Annual Meeting in Clearwater Florida, June 2018. The sections will describe the maturation of the brain during adolescence as studied using imaging technologies, illustrate how plasticity shapes the structure of the brain using examples of pathological conditions such as Tourette's' syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and a review of the key molecular systems involved in this plasticity and how some commonly abused substances alter brain development. The role of stimulants used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the plasticity of the reward circuit is then described. Lastly, clinical data promoting an understanding of peer-influences on risky behavior in adolescents provides evidence for the complexity of the roles that peers play in decision making, a phenomenon different from that in the adult. Imaging studies have revealed that activation of the social network by the presence of peers at times of decision making is unique in the adolescent. Since normal brain development relies on experiences which alter th...
Source: Neurotoxicology and Teratology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

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Tourette syndrome (TS) and Chronic motor/vocal Tic Disorder (CTD) are neurodevelopmental conditions defined by the occurrence of multiple tics. Besides the well-known association with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news
Conclusions: Neural development is an enormously complex and dynamic process. Immunological pathways are implicated in several early neurodevelopmental processes including the formation and refinement of neural circuits. Hyper-reactivity of systemic immune pathways and neuroinflammation may contribute to the natural fluctuations of the core behavioral features of CTD, OCD, and ADHD. There is still limited knowledge of the efficacy of direct and indirect (i.e., through environmental modifications) immune-modulatory interventions in the treatment of these disorders. Future research also needs to focus on the key molecular pa...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Iasevoli F, Barone A, Buonaguro EF, Vellucci L, de Bartolomeis A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a group of complex and heterogeneous disorders, caused by the disruption of normal brain development. Antipsychotic agents are frequently used in these disorders to treat maladaptive conduct. However, a systematic evaluation of their safety/tolerability in NDDs is still lacking. Given the unique neurobiology of NDDs, antipsychotics may be expected to elicit distinctive side effects. AREAS COVERED: PubMed was systematically searched for all published studies from 1980 until 202...
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Drug Saf Source Type: research
Conclusions: Impaired inhibitory performance and increased neural activity in TS appear to manifest predominantly in relation to ADHD symptomatology. PMID: 32821008 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: World J Biol Psychiatry Source Type: research
Tic disorders (TD) are a group neuropsychiatric disorders with childhood onset characterized by tics, i.e. repetitive, sudden, and involuntary movements or vocalizations; and Tourette syndrome (TS) is the most severe form of TD. Their clinical manifestations are diverse; and are often associated with various psychopathological and/or behavioral comorbidities, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Individual severity and response to treatment are highly variable, and there are some refractory cases, which are less responsive ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Movement, behavioral, and neuropsychiatric disorders in children have been linked to infections and a group of anti-neuronal autoantibodies, implying dopamine receptor-mediated encephalitis within the basal ganglia. The purpose of this study was to determine if anti-neuronal biomarkers, when used as a group, confirmed the acute disease in Sydenham chorea (SC) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). IgG autoantibodies against four neuronal autoantigens (tubulin, lysoganglioside GM1, and dopamine receptors D1 and D2) were detected in SC sera (N=8), sera and/or cer...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
The advent and application of high-throughput sequencing is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular neurobiology of diverse psychiatric disorders. Whole-genome sequencing, which targets the coding regions of the genome, and whole-exome sequencing are being applied to study multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Tourette ’s disorder, among others [(1–3); https://schema.broadinstitute.org]. These studies have demonstrated a role for ultrarare, deleterious, frequently de novo variation in each disorder, and h...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Tourette syndrome (TS), also known as Tourette ’s disorder, is a neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in early childhood characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic that have been present for longer than 1 year. TS is a model neuropsychiatric disorder, in that the vast majority of affected individuals, whether ascertained in clinical or community settings, experience at least one co-occurring psychiatric disorder, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or mood, anxiety, and specific learning disorders (1).
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Conclusion: Clonidine has a limited evidence base for use in the management of behavioural problems in patients with ASD. Most evidence originates from case reports. Given the paucity of pharmacological options for addressing challenging behaviours in ASD patients, a clonidine trial may be an appropriate and cost-effective pharmaceutical option for this population. PMID: 32405312 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry Source Type: research
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by the repeated inability to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the person or others. Although classification approaches to ICDs vary both diachronically and synchronically, this group of conditions encompasses a wide range of syndromes, including pathologic gambling, kleptomania, trichotillomania, excoriation (skin picking) disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, oppositional defiant, conduct, and antisocial personality disorders. ICDs can play a significant role as comorbidities in both n...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
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