Role of IL-33 in transplant biology.

Role of IL-33 in transplant biology. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2019 Sep 04;: Authors: Jin Y, Kong D, Liu C, Gong W Abstract Since the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-33 and its receptor (ST2) are closely involved in regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses, it is conceivable that they may play an important role in organ transplantation. IL-33 is broadly expressed by multiple cell types such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. As a strong inducer of type 2 helper T (Th2) cellular immune responses, IL-33 can significantly prolong allograft survival in organ transplantation partially via altering gene expression profiles and increasing frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Nevertheless, the IL-33 signaling pathway and its underlying mechanisms remain largely undefined in transplant biology. This present mini-review summarizes recent advances in the studies concerning the IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway and the analysis of its biological function in the field transplantation. The literature points to a deleterious role of activation of the IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway, giving rise to ischemia/reperfusion, acute kidney injury and failure, acute heart rejection, as well as liver fibrosis. Under pro-inflammatory conditions, IL-33 expression is upregulated. Alteration of IL-33 levels has been suggested as a biomarker for predicting organ injury and ongoing allogeneic transplant outcome. These studi...
Source: European Cytokine Network - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: GP after SOT is associated with a high risk of PTLD, allograft loss and poor survival. The combination of SPE, SIFE, SFLC and UIFE is optimal for GP detection. These methods aid in identifying patients who are at risk for PTLD or allograft damage and should be included in regular post-Tx follow-up. PMID: 31398462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transplant Immunology - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Transpl Immunol Source Type: research
SummaryImmunosuppression (IS) is administered to kidney transplant recipients to prevent rejection episodes and loss of the renal allograft. Most centers rely on a triple IS after induction with either interleukin ‑2 receptor antibodies or antithymocyte globulin. The most frequently used substances for maintenance IS are glucocorticoids, antimetabolites, mTOR inhibitors (mTORi), calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and the costimulation blocker belatacept. Guidelines recommend a triple combination consisting of CNI s, antimetabolites and corticosteroids for the majority of patients. The long-term risk for malignancy in general i...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract The transplanted liver can modulate the recipient immune system to induce tolerance after transplantation. This phenomenon was observed nearly five decades ago. Subsequently, the liver's role in multivisceral transplantation was recognized, as it has a protective role in preventing rejection of simultaneously transplanted solid organs such as kidney and heart. The liver has a unique architecture and is home to many cells involved in immunity and inflammation. After transplantation, these cells migrate from the liver into the recipient. Early studies identified chimerism as an important mechanism by which ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Conclusions. donors are a demographically and clinically diverse group. Understanding this diversity and future trends in VCA donor characteristics is critical in supporting this life-changing field of transplantation.
Source: Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—General Source Type: research
In conclusion, circulating MDSCs are measurable, functional and have a G-MDSC phenotype in lung transplant patients. Their frequency is increased in stable patients, decreased during post-transplant complications, and related to level of immunosuppression. This study may pave the way for further investigations of MDSC in the context of lung transplantation. Introduction From a transplant immunological point of view, graft acceptance is the fundamental element in allograft survival. Graft acceptance is realized by blocking the immune system with immunosuppression preventing host immune cells to recognized and attack...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we compare the ability of suboptimal doses of freshly sorted and in vitro expanded human CD127loCD25+CD4+ Tregs to promote human skin allograft survival and demonstrate that higher effectiveness of expanded Tregs can be compensated by transient activation of freshly isolated Tregs. Recently-activated Tregs are characterized by an increased expression of Treg functional markers and better in vitro and in vivo survival, correlating with an increased expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-XL. The ability to enhance Treg function without long in vitro culture may be of value in the treatment of specific immunopatholog...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Antibodies against two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelin A receptor (ETAR) are among a growing number of autoantibodies that are found to be associated with allograft dysfunction. AT1R antibodies (AT1Rabs) and ETAR antibodies (ETARabs) have been shown to activate their target receptors and affect signaling pathways. Multiple single center reports have shown an association between presence of these antibodies and acute or chronic rejection and graft loss in kidney, heart, liver, lung and composite tissue transplantations. However, the characteristics ...
Source: Human Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Hum Immunol Source Type: research
Qiancheng Deng1, Yangyang Luo1,2, Christopher Chang3, Haijing Wu1, Yan Ding4* and Rong Xiao1* 1Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, Department of Dermatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China 2Department of Dermatology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China 3Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States 4Department of Dermatology, Hainan Provincial Dermatology Disease Hospital, Haikou, China Autoimmune diseases are usually complex and multifactorial, characterized by aberrant produc...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion As a critical regulator of inflammation and cell survival, the NFκB pathway is a promising target for diagnosing and treating kidney diseases. For modulation of the NFκB pathway in the clinic, a number of molecules can effectively inhibit NFκB signaling by targeting the receptors, associated adaptors, IKKs, IκBs and transcriptional regulators (144). There is further clinical evidence on small-molecule inhibitors of IKKα and NIK from recent trials on anti-cancer therapies (145). These clinical trials showed that the cancer-selective pharmacodynamic response of DTP3, the co-inhibitor...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation could be use as a potential treatment for PHLF. Introduction Partial hepatectomy is an important treatment for benign and malignant liver diseases. Although the liver can be completely regenerated after partial excision or injury, at least 1/3 of the liver should be retained in most of the patients, and 40–50% should be retained in patients with parenchymal liver disease (Adams et al., 2013; Cieslak et al., 2014). Postoperative complications, such as acute post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) or small liver syndrome, may occur when the scope of excision is to...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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