Impact of Public Health Interventions on Drinking Water-Associated Outbreaks of Hepatitis A - United States, 1971-2017.

This report analyzes drinking water-associated hepatitis A outbreaks reported to the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) during 1971-2017. During that period, 32 outbreaks resulting in 857 cases were reported, all before 2010. Untreated ground water was associated with 23 (72%) outbreaks, resulting in 585 (68.3%) reported cases. Reported outbreaks significantly decreased after introduction of Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) hepatitis A vaccination recommendations* and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) public ground water system regulations.† Individual water systems, which are not required to meet national drinking water standards,§ were the only contaminated drinking water systems to cause the last four reported hepatitis A outbreaks during 1995-2009. No waterborne outbreaks were reported during 2009-2017. Water testing and treatment are important considerations to protect persons who use these unregulated systems from HAV infection. PMID: 31487277 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: A serologic control should be recommended in this population in the event of a single injection vaccination schedule. During routine follow-up, and prior to any untoward event, physicians should assess the vaccination coverage of HIV-infected patients. PMID: 33022294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our study reported a recent increase of notified hepatitis A cases attributable to cases in the European interconnectedness of MSM in Sassari, a small locality. Hepatitis A vaccination for MSM in Sardinia region is recommended; however, our data emphasize the need of hepatitis A screening and vaccination not only for MSM with occasional partners but also for those in monogamous relationships.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that Iran is among HAV low endemic countries and vaccination against HAV is recommended only in the high-risk population, including patients with chronic liver diseases, patients with coagulopathy, travelers to the high endemic areas, and homosexuals. Establishment of national HAV surveillance system, concerning of health system about the occurrence of the HAV outbreaks, implementation of harm reduction strategies, improving economic indices and sanitation and access to the safe water in the deprived regions is recommended. PMID: 32917416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our study describes that during the study period, HAV infection affected predominantly young adults, particularly men who have sex with men. An elevated proportion of them was diagnosed with a concomitant sexually transmitted disease, and several patients had a severe presentation of the disease. PMID: 32835862 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our results emphasize the value of targeting populations where local transmission is not yet sustained rather than populations where transmission is already waning. Simulation modeling can aid in proactive rather than reactive decision-making and may help direct the response to outbreaks emerging in other states. See video abstract: http://links.lww.com/EDE/B704.
Source: Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Disease Source Type: research
This study examines the impact of an ED-based hepatitis A vaccination program, developed in partnership with the PDPH, on incidence of hepatitis A infection and hospital admission.Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all ED visits in the 12-week period centered around the implementation of the ED-based hepatitis A vaccination program. All adult patients presenting to the ED were offered vaccination, with vaccines supplied free of charge by the PDPH. We compared the incidence of diagnosis and of hospital admission for treatment of hepatitis A before and after implementation of the program.Results: There were 10,0...
Source: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract HEPATITIS A IS A VACCINE-PREVENTABLE, COMMUNICABLE DISEASE OF THE LIVER CAUSED BY THE HEPATITIS A VIRUS (HAV). THE INFECTION IS TRANSMITTED VIA THE FECAL-ORAL ROUTE, USUALLY FROM DIRECT PERSON-TO-PERSON CONTACT OR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FOOD OR WATER. HEPATITIS A IS AN ACUTE, SELF-LIMITED DISEASE THAT DOES NOT RESULT IN CHRONIC INFECTION. HAV ANTIBODIES (IMMUNOGLOBULIN G [IGG] ANTI-HAV) PRODUCED IN RESPONSE TO HAV INFECTION PERSIST FOR LIFE AND PROTECT AGAINST REINFECTION; IGG ANTI-HAV PRODUCED AFTER VACCINATION CONFER LONG-TERM IMMUNITY. THIS REPORT SUPPLANTS AND SUMMARIZES PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED RECO...
Source: MMWR Recomm Rep - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Recomm Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Los Angeles County comprises 4,058 square miles and is home to approximately 10 million residents (1), an estimated 59,000 (0.6%) of whom experience homelessness on a given night (2). In late 2018, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH) was notified of a case of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a person experiencing homelessness. LAC DPH conducted an investigation to determine the source of infection, identify additional cases, and identify contacts for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Over the next week, LAC DPH identified two additional hepatitis A cases in persons experiencing home...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract During 2016-2018, San Diego County, California, USA, experienced one of the largest hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States in 2 decades. In close partnership with local healthcare systems, San Diego County Public Health led a public health response to the outbreak that focused on a 3-pronged strategy to vaccinate, sanitize, and educate. Healthcare systems administered nearly half of the vaccinations delivered in San Diego County. At University of California San Diego Health, the use of informatics tools assisted with the identification of at-risk populations and with vaccine delivery across outpatient...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
Authors: Hernández Bustabad A, Morales Arráez D, González A, de Vera A, Díaz-Flores F, Lecuona Fernández M, Gómez-Sirvent JL, Avellón Calvo A, Hernández-Guerra M Abstract OBJECTIVES: there has been a global increase in the incidence of hepatitis A infection. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the increase in our region and the degree of adherence to the recommended hygienic measures after discharge from hospital. METHODS: demographic, clinical and biochemical variables were collected from patients with acute hepatitis A in our heal...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
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