HIV-2 as a model to identify a functional HIV cure.

HIV-2 as a model to identify a functional HIV cure. AIDS Res Ther. 2019 Sep 05;16(1):24 Authors: Esbjörnsson J, Jansson M, Jespersen S, Månsson F, Hønge BL, Lindman J, Medina C, da Silva ZJ, Norrgren H, Medstrand P, Rowland-Jones SL, Wejse C Abstract Two HIV virus types exist: HIV-1 is pandemic and aggressive, whereas HIV-2 is confined mainly to West Africa and less pathogenic. Despite the fact that it has been almost 40 years since the discovery of AIDS, there is still no cure or vaccine against HIV. Consequently, the concepts of functional vaccines and cures that aim to limit HIV disease progression and spread by persistent control of viral replication without life-long treatment have been suggested as more feasible options to control the HIV pandemic. To identify virus-host mechanisms that could be targeted for functional cure development, researchers have focused on a small fraction of HIV-1 infected individuals that control their infection spontaneously, so-called elite controllers. However, these efforts have not been able to unravel the key mechanisms of the infection control. This is partly due to lack in statistical power since only 0.15% of HIV-1 infected individuals are natural elite controllers. The proportion of long-term viral control is larger in HIV-2 infection compared with HIV-1 infection. We therefore present the idea of using HIV-2 as a model for finding a functional cure against HIV. Understanding the key diffe...
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Res Ther Source Type: research

Related Links:

Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH). Published: 1/8/2019. This one-hour, 48-minute presentation discusses the history of pandemics, their challenges, and the next influenza pandemic. Topics include the role of viral, host, and secondary bacterial factors in influenza pathogenesis; contemporary Avian influenza, and why an HIV vaccine Is essential for ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (Video or Multimedia)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH). Published: 1/8/2019. This one-hour, 48-minute presentation discusses the history of pandemics, their challenges, and the next influenza pandemic. Topics include the role of viral, host, and secondary bacterial factors in influenza pathogenesis; contemporary Avian influenza, and why an HIV vaccine Is essential for ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (Video or Multimedia)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
An effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine has long been sought to contend with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic.One approach researchers have taken to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 is to stabilize the structurally flexible HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer. Researchers stabilized the Env trimer in a conformation that displays predominantly broadly neutralizing epitopes and few non-neutralizing epitopes. Currently, BG505 DS-SOSIP is a leading vaccine candidate with the desired conformation and antigenicity.Ideally, to be useful as a vaccine, such a conformational...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
In pursuit of an effective vaccine to end the global HIV-1/AIDS pandemic, researchers at the Vaccine Research Center ( “VRC”) continue to study the structure of HIV-1. Recently, these researchers have determined the three-dimensional structure of the HIV-1 Envelope trimeric ectodomain (“Env”), comprised of three gp120 and three gp41 subunits, in its prefusion, mature, closed conformation.The researchers hypothesize that immunization with the prefusion, closed HIV-1 Env protein will elicit a neutralizing immune response. The VRC researchers engineered a portion of the HIV-1 Env trimer to stabilize it...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
[Citizen] There has been talk in recent weeks of a potential breakthrough in the search for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine 35 years after the virus was first identified. The pandemic has caused much misery globally, but especially in developing countries, including Tanzania.
Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Authors: Chen Z Abstract Since the discovery of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, it has been extremely difficult to develop an effective vaccine or a therapeutic cure despite over 36 years of global efforts. One of the major reasons is due to the lack of an immune-competent animal model that supports live human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and disease progression such that vaccine-induced correlates of protection and efficacy can be determined clearly before human trials. Nevertheless, rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and chimeric simian human i...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
This article examines fundamental challenges to the development of a preventive HIV vaccine. They include the initially erroneous but powerful perception of the natural history of HIV disease, as an acute rather than a chronic illness even in the absence of therapy, the lack of appreciation of the quasispecies biology of HIV and the abandonment of principles of immunology theory caused by the allure of technological prowess. In addition two other important aspects are discussed: vaccines directed against transmitted/founder viruses (T/F) and the reconsideration of HIV inactivation as a viable means to obtain a preventive H...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Authors: Liu H, Su X, Si L, Lu L, Jiang S Abstract A human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine which is able to effectively prevent infection would be the most powerful method of extinguishing pandemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yet, achieving such vaccine remains great challenges. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is a highly conserved region of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 subunit near the viral envelope surface, and it plays a key role in membrane fusion. It is also the target of some reported broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Thus, MPER is deemed to be ...
Source: Protein and Cell - Category: Cytology Tags: Protein Cell Source Type: research
More News: African Health | AIDS Vaccine | HIV AIDS | Infectious Diseases | Pandemics | Statistics | Vaccines