Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity

Researchers here show that the fat tissue surrounding skeletal muscle that is observed in older and obese individuals contributes to declining muscle mass and strength. The most compelling evidence arises from transplantation of fat tissue between mice, showing that it produces harmful effects. The researchers further suggest that cellular senescence is an important factor in this process, which dovetails nicely with what is known of the way in which excess visceral fat tissue accelerates aging. The presence of larger than usual amounts of visceral fat increases the number of lingering senescent cells in the body, and senescent cells broadly disrupt tissue structure and function via their inflammatory signals. The accumulation of senescent cells with age is now accepted as a contributing cause of aging, and an energetic industry aiming to produce senolytic therapies capable of selectively destroying these cells is presently in its initial stages of growth. Sarcopenia due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength leads to physical inactivity and decreased quality of life. The number of individuals with sarcopenia is rapidly increasing as the number of older people increases worldwide, making this condition a medical and social problem. Some patients with sarcopenia exhibit accumulation of peri-muscular adipose tissue (PMAT) as ectopic fat deposition surrounding atrophied muscle. However, an association of PMAT with muscle atrophy has not been demonstrated. H...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

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We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractThe rapidity of the increase in the global burden of liver disease covered in this review with estimates worldwide of 2 million deaths from cirrhosis and with no signs of effective controls being introduced for two of the main causes, namely, excess alcohol consumption and obesity, is of great concern. The 25% prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in many population groups and the recent description of primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in obese subjects without underlying severe fibrosis/cirrhosis also raises many questions. In addition, covered in this review are more encouraging areas including techni...
Source: Hepatology International - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: ROS promote CD8+ T cell activation by facilitating autoantigen cross-presentation by DCs. ROS scavengers could potentially represent an important component of therapies aiming to disrupt autoantigen presentation and activation of CD8+ T cells in individuals at-risk for developing T1D. In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), pancreatic β cells are attacked by a T cell mediated autoimmune response and lose their ability to produce insulin (1–3). While a number of immune cell subsets are involved throughout the development of T1D, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) function as primary effectors of β cell damag...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion The impact of sepsis on the gut is manifold, e.g., sepsis mediated alteration of the gut-blood barrier and increase in the intestinal permeability, which may correlate with the phenomena of bacterial translocation and lymphatic activation (“toxic-lymph”). Systemic consequences of sepsis are widespread and concern to the coagulative system, the microbiome as well as enzymes, such as pancreatic proteases, MMPs and IAPs. Nevertheless, the therapeutic approaches for modulating the mucosal immune system are still rarely effective in daily routine. Recent published studies showing that treatment with FMT,...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KLDS1.0318 preserved in our laboratory was orally administered to CTX-treated mice to explore its potential effects to attenuate the toxic effects of CTX-induced by modulating intestinal immune response, promoting intestinal integrity and improving metabolic profile. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups including normal control group (NC; non-CTX with sterile saline), model control group (MC; CTX-treated with sterile saline), CTX-treated with L. plantarum KLDS1.0318 (10 mL/kg) groups with three different doses (KLDS1.0318-L, 5 × 107 CFU/mL; KLDS1.0318...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions As the intestinal mucosa surface constitutes the major surface of the body which is in direct contact with the outer environment, intestinal immune homeostasis must be accurately regulated. The interplay between commensal microbiota, intestinal stromal cells, and the mucosal immune system components should guarantee the intestinal homeostasis to avoid a sustained inflammation that could induce tissue damage. However, several factors can lead to inflammation through homeostasis breakdown. Figure 1 summarizes the main points that have been reviewed here. We have described what it is known so far about the role o...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ard P Abstract NAFLD is currently the main cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries, and the number of NAFLD patients is growing worldwide. NAFLD often has similar symptoms to other metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of many diseases has been revealed. Regarding NAFLD, experiments using gut microbiota transplants to germ-free animal models showed that fatty liver disease development is determined by gut bacteria. Moreover, the perturbation of the composition of the gut microbiota has been observed in patients suff...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
This study cohort is a healthy subset of the EpiPath cohort, excluding all participants with acute or chronic diseases. With a mediation analysis we examined whether CMV titers may account for immunosenescence observed in ELA. In this study, we have shown that ELA is associated with higher levels of T cell senescence in healthy participants. Not only did we find a higher number of senescent cells (CD57+), these cells also expressed higher levels of CD57, a cell surface marker for senescence, and were more cytotoxic in ELA compared to controls. Control participants with high CMV titers showed a higher number of senes...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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