Update on gastric cancer treatments and gene therapies

AbstractGastric cancer is an active topic of clinical and basic research due to high morbidity and mortality. To date, gastrectomy and chemotherapy are the only therapeutic options for gastric cancer patients, but drug resistance, either acquired or primary, is the main cause for treatment failure. Differences in development and response to cancer treatments have been observed among ethnically diverse GC patient populations. In spite of major incidence, GC Asian patients have a significantly better prognosis and response to treatments than Caucasian ones due to genetic discordances between the two populations. Gene therapy could be an alternative strategy to overcome such issues and especially CRISPR/Cas9 represents one of the most intriguing gene-editing system. Thus, in this review article, we want to provide an update on the currently used therapies for the treatment of advanced GC.Graphical abstract
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Endoscopic surveillance is currently recommended in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) to detect prevalent and incident dysplasia/esophageal adenocarcinoma. This strategy is underpinned by the concepts that (1) dysplasia can be treated endoscopically to prevent early gastric cancer (EAC),1 and (2) early-stage EAC (without symptomatic dysphagia and muscularis propria invasion) can be successfully treated (endoscopically) with excellent long-term survival.2
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Authors: Wang Y, Zhang B, Gao G, Zhang Y, Xia Q Abstract Guanine nucleotide exchange factor T (GEFT), a member of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor family, is expressed in a variety of tumors. In the present study, the expression and clinical significance of GEFT in malignant digestive tract tumors was assessed. Tumor and adjacent control samples from 180 patients were tested. Positive GEFT expression rates were 80, 83.33 and 86.67% in esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC), gastric carcinoma (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. GEFT expression was associated with diffuse type carcinoma according ...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
In conclusion, SIN and cisplatin exerted synergistic antitumor effects in gastric cancer cells and might constitute a promising therapeutic approach for gastric cancer.
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research
We describe a case of multiple cutaneous metastases from gastric cancer resembling sebaceous cysts with a synchronous melanoma, in a patient after fluoropyrimidine-based systemic chemotherapy. Melanoma occurring as a second cancer has been recognized in patients having undergone previous chemotherapy or radiation for another cancer. We can assume that the capecitabine-based chemotherapy may have played a role in the development of the melanocytic neoplasm. Our observation adds extra evidence to the link between fluoropyrimidine-based immunosuppression and the induction of melanocytes’ proliferation and transformation...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
ConclusionWe suggest that esophageal bypass using pedicled jejunal pull-up “supercharging” by creating anastomoses between the jejunal and internal thoracic vessels is the optimal procedure for patients with extensive cicatricial esophageal stenosis caused by corrosive esophagitis.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusion: Standardized evaluation of TIL levels may provide valuable prognostic information in a spectrum of different malignancies. PMID: 31621387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common form of mRNA modification, and is dynamically regulated by the m6A RNA methylation regulators. However, little is known about m6A in gastric cancer. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of m6A RNA methylation regulators in gastric cancer. Here, we found that most of the 13 main m6A RNA methylation regulators are higher expressed in 375 patients with gastric cancer. We identified two subgroups of gastric cancer (cluster1 and 2) by applying consensus clustering to m6A RNA methylation regulators. Compared with the cluster1 subgroup, the cluster2 subgroup correlates wit...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
With great interest we have read the study by Bergquist et  al1 in which the authors concluded that early-onset gastric cancer (EOGC) is a distinct disease with worrisome trends and oncogenic features. They performed a retrospective study, on the basis of Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)2 database, to elucidate the characteristics of EOGC from clinical and genomic level compared with late-onset gastric cancer (LOGC). The impressive results are largely in accordance with the study by Mun et al,3 which focused more on the integrated molecular signatures of EOGC via ...
Source: Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), a cytokine produced by many subsets of activated immune cells, is critical for driving inflammation in several models. Using Helicobacter pylori infection as a model for chronic mucosal infection, we previously published that IL-21 is required for the development of gastritis in response to infection. Concomitant with protection from chronic inflammation, H. pylori-infected IL-21–/– mice exhibited limited Th1 and Th17 responses in their gastric mucosa. Here we report that H. pylori-infected IL-21–/– mice express significantly higher levels of IL-17A than H. pylori-infected wi...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Host Response and Inflammation Source Type: research
We examined receipt of therapy and outcomes in the non-curative management of EGC based on medical oncology provider volume.MethodsWe conducted a population based retrospective cohort study of non-curative EGC over 2005 –2017 by linking administrative healthcare datasets. The volume of new EGC consultations per medical oncology provider per year was calculated and divided into quintiles. High-volume (HV) medical oncologists were defined as the 4–5th quintiles. Outcomes were receipt of chemotherapy and overall s urvival (OS). Multivariate logistic and Cox-proportional hazards regressions examined the association...
Source: Gastric Cancer - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
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