Specific Viral Etiologies Are Associated With Outcomes in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome*

Conclusions: Pneumonia was the most common cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, and viruses were commonly isolated as the sole pathogen. Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza were associated with better outcomes relative to other viral etiologies. Viral pneumonias in immunocompromised subjects, particularly nonadeno herpesviruses, drove the mortality rate for pneumonia acute respiratory distress syndrome. Specific viral etiologies are associated with differential outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and should be accounted for in future studies.
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Brief Reports Source Type: research

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Authors: Ishiguro T, Kobayashi Y, Takano K, Ozawa R, Shimizu Y, Takayanagi N Abstract Two patients, a 76-year-old woman and 66-year-old woman, presented to our hospital with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection. Both patients showed chest imaging findings of bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidations. We initially suspected these patients of having influenza-associated pneumonia and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, respectively, and performed bronchoalveolar lavage, but only human parainfluenza virus-1 infection was detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing. These findings suggest t...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Abstract Influenza virus is activated by proteolytic cleavage of hemagglutinin by trypsin. After determining the optimal trypsin concentration, intracellular and extracellular influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2) virus productions were compared in cultures treated with T-705 (favipiravir) and GS 4071 (an active form of oseltamivir). Although both drugs efficiently inhibited extracellular viral RNA release in a dose-dependent manner, T-705 inhibited it to the level of the inoculum without trypsin treatment, while GS 4071 inhibited it to a final level 10 times higher than that without trypsin. T...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
tz KA Abstract We gathered data from three pipeline databases and other public sources on development stage and clinical trial metrics for 1,914 investigational drugs, biologics, and vaccines and 2,769 clinical trials intended to treat a wide variety of infectious diseases. We included new molecular entities (NMEs), new formulations, and new combinations. Clinical trial times decreased from 2000-08 to 2009-17, varied by disease class, and were longer for trials with more subjects or more sites. Clinical approval success rates were higher for this set of diseases than those in the published literature for drugs acr...
Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research
Conclusions: A large HAdV outbreak is currently ongoing in the Korean military, with a trend away from seasonality, and HAdV-55 is likely the predominant strain. Persistent efforts to control the outbreak, HAdV type-specific surveillance, and vaccine development are required. PMID: 31480827 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Korean J Intern Med Source Type: research
ABSTRACT Measles is an acute febrile exanthematic disease of viral etiology, highly contagious, being the cause of morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries, whereas it has become rarer in developed countries due to vaccination. Its differential diagnosis should be made with other childhood viral respiratory diseases such as influenza, rhinovirus and adenovirus, and exanthematic febrile diseases such as rubella, roseola and varicella. In tropical regions, it should be performed with dengue, zika and chikungunya. Its clinical picture presents the following phases: incubation, usually asymptomatic; a prodro...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
The decision as to whether patients should be admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU), in the absence of information concerning survival rates or prognostic factors in survival, is often challenging. We analyzed survival trends in relation to hospital discharge and examined patient and hospital characteristics associated with survival following ICU care, using a sample of nationwide claims data in Korea from 2002 through 2013. The Korean government implements a compulsory social insurance program that covers the country's entire population, and the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NH...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
Purpose of review The approach to diagnose invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the absence of lung biopsy in ICU patients is reviewed. This approach should be based on four pillars: mycology, medical imaging, underlying conditions, and acute disease expression. Recent findings Diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the absence of histopathologic evidence is a matter of probability weighting. Initiating antifungal therapy in an early phase and with a lower likelihood of disease might outweigh further diagnostic workout with further delay in appropriate treatment. However, in ICU patients, a preemptive antifunga...
Source: Current Opinion in Critical Care - Category: Nursing Tags: SEVERE INFECTIONS: Edited by Michael S. Niederman Source Type: research
Purpose of review Overview of influenza infection, focusing on outcome and complications in critically ill patients. We also discuss relevant elements in immunopathogenesis and their role as predictors of severity. Recent findings Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus circulates seasonally and remains the predominant subtype among intensive care patients. Mortality in acute respiratory failure (ARF) is around 20%, independent of influenza subtypes. During severe infection, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, such as Th1 and Th17 cytokines, is associated with complicated infections and m...
Source: Current Opinion in Critical Care - Category: Nursing Tags: SEVERE INFECTIONS: Edited by Michael S. Niederman Source Type: research
Future control of pneumonia and diarrhea mortality in India requires understanding of their etiologies. We combined time series analysis of seasonality, climate-region, and clinical syndromes from 243,000 verbal autopsies in the nationally-representative Million Death Study. Pneumonia mortality at 1 month-14 years was greatest in January (Rate ratio (RR) 1.66, 99%CI 1.51-1.82; versus the April minimum). Higher RRs at 1-11 months suggested respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) etiology. India's humid subtropical region experienced a unique summer pneumonia mortality. Diarrhea mortality peaked in July (RR 1.66, 1.48-1.85) and Ja...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Epidemiology and Global Health Source Type: research
Annual influenza epidemics cause between 3-5 million cases of severe illness and approximately 290,000 to 600,000 deaths globally (World Health Organization, 2018). Young children experience a high burden of influenza-associated illness, including hospital admissions for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) and pneumonia (Thompson et al., 2004; Neuzil et al., 2002; Poehling et al., 2006; Nair et al., 2011). Influenza virus infections also account for a substantial proportion of all pneumonia deaths of viral etiology in young children globally (Rudan et al., 2008),
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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