Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 821: Understanding Enterovirus D68-Induced Neurologic Disease: A Basic Science Review

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 821: Understanding Enterovirus D68-Induced Neurologic Disease: A Basic Science Review Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11090821 Authors: Hixon Frost Rudy Messacar Clarke Tyler In 2014, the United States (US) experienced an unprecedented epidemic of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)-induced respiratory disease that was temporally associated with the emergence of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a paralytic disease occurring predominantly in children, that has a striking resemblance to poliomyelitis. Although a definitive causal link between EV-D68 infection and AFM has not been unequivocally established, rapidly accumulating clinical, immunological, and epidemiological evidence points to EV-D68 as the major causative agent of recent seasonal childhood AFM outbreaks in the US. This review summarizes evidence, gained from in vivo and in vitro models of EV-D68-induced disease, which demonstrates that contemporary EV-D68 strains isolated during and since the 2014 outbreak differ from historical EV-D68 in several factors influencing neurovirulence, including their genomic sequence, their receptor utilization, their ability to infect neurons, and their neuropathogenicity in mice. These findings provide biological plausibility that EV-D68 is a causal agent of AFM and provide important experimental models for studies of pathogenesis and treatment that are likely to be difficult or impossible in humans.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionsThe median h-index for an academic thoracic surgeon in Canada and the United States is 10. Surgeons who engage in Twitter activity are more likely to have their research cited by others.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Wanyu Dong, Wenting Xie, Yunbo Liu, Baokun Sui, Hao Zhang, Liran Liu, Yubei Tan, Xiaohan Tong, Zhen F. Fu, Ping Yin, Liurong Fang, Guiqing PengAbstractEmerging coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause severe gastroenteric or respiratory diseases in humans and animals, and no approved therapeutics are currently available. Here, A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) of the tyrphostin class, is identified as a robust inhibitor of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection in cell-based assays. Moreover, A9 exhibited potent ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
With Amy Rosenfeld Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was first isolated from children with respiratory disease in 1962. No outbreaks of infection were detected until the late summer and early fall of 2014, and then in 2016 and 2018. During these epidemics of respiratory disease, some children developed polio-like paralysis. We have recently published a paper showing […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information acute flaccid myelitis astrocyte childhood paralysis enterovirus D68 neuron neurotropism poliovirus viral viruses Source Type: blogs
Carter Roberts’ motorized wheelchair didn’t arrive until the day he died. It had been a long time coming and his parents had fought hard to get it. The chair cost more than $32,000 and the insurance companies wouldn’t cover it, so the family went to court. One insurer eventually agreed to pay for some components of the chair but not the whole thing. And then none of it mattered anyway. On Sept. 22, 2018, the Roberts’ doorbell rang and the chair was delivered. Also on Sept. 22, 2018, Carter died, just three months shy of his sixth birthday. He had been largely paralyzed for the final two years of his...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease viruses Source Type: news
(NEW YORK) — One morning last fall, 4-year-old Joey Wilcox woke up with the left side of his face drooping. It was the first sign of an unfolding nightmare. Three days later, Joey was in a hospital intensive care unit, unable to move his arms or legs or sit up. Spinal taps and other tests failed to find a cause. Doctors worried he was about to lose the ability to breathe. “It’s devastating,” said his father, Jeremy Wilcox, of Herndon, Virginia. “Your healthy child can catch a cold — and then become paralyzed.” Joey, who survived but still suffers some of the effects, was one of 228...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized illness medical onetime Source Type: news
AbstractEnvironmental surveillance is an effective approach to investigate the circulation of human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. EVs excreted by patients who present diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 6-year (2009 –2014) surveillance study was conducted to detect non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Cordoba city, Argentina. Echovirus 6 (E-6) was the most prevalent (28%), followed by E-14 (17%), E-16 (14%), Coxsackievirus (CV) A9 (11%), E-20 (9%), and CVA24 (6%). Other mino...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Hand-foot-mouth disease can be caused by any of several related viruses, most commonly by one called coxsackievirus A-16. In 2008, an epidemic of one type of severe hand-foot-mouth disease (also known as HFMD) in China appeared in news reports around the world as the child-killing virus. More than forty people died in that outbreak; all of them children. The culprit was enterovirus 71, or EV-71. In 2011 another new cause of HFMD hit the United States, coxsackievirus A-6. People feel sicker with this one than typical HFMD; the rash is worse; it lasts longer; and they may temporarily lose their nails. One clue to t...
Source: Conversations with Dr Greene - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Dr. Greene's Blog Diseases & Conditions Infectious Disease Source Type: blogs
Abstract Enteroviruses are among the most common human viruses around the world. More than 100 different serotypes that can cause a range of clinical pathologies have been identified, although the most frequent are those that affect the central nervous system, such as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or paralysis, which in some cases can be very severe or even fatal. In recent years, enterovirus outbreaks associated to new diseases have been reported all over the world, and as a result some serotypes have been considered 'emerging' pathogens. Yet, our knowledge about these viruses, especially about the non-polio e...
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
VIRO-TypeNed is a collaborative molecular surveillance platform facilitated through a web-based database. Genetic data in combination with epidemiological, clinical and patient data are shared between clinical and public health laboratories, as part of the surveillance underpinning poliovirus eradication. We analysed the combination of data submitted from 2010 to 2014 to understand circulation patterns of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) of public health relevance. Two epidemiological patterns were observed based on VIRO-TypeNed data and classical surveillance data dating back to 1996: (i) endemic cyclic, characterised by pr...
Source: Eurosurveillance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Ebola is now a dreaded household name. Everyone has heard of this virus, causing thousands of deaths in countries in Africa particularly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. We followed the plight of health care workers who put their lives on the line to battle the viral disease, trying to prevent the virus from spreading to the next host. But what about the Enterovirus D68? And what about Chlorovirus, Densovirus, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Ranavirus? (See Bullets below). Our understanding of the viral world is severely limited. Viruses are the most numerous and diverse entities on earth with estimates of 1.7 bi...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Brain | Children | Enterovirus | Epidemics | Epidemiology | History of Medicine | Neurology | Neuroscience | Outbreaks | Polio | Respiratory Medicine | Science | Study | USA Health | Virology