Targeting Granulocyte-Monocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Signaling in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Future Prospects

AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, autoimmune disease that affects joints and extra-articular structures. In the last decade, the management of this chronic disease has dramatically changed with the introduction of several targeted mechanisms of action, such as tumor necrosis factor- α inhibition, T-cell costimulation inhibition, B-cell depletion, interleukin-6 blockade, and Janus kinase inhibition. Beyond its well-known hematopoietic role on the proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a proinflammatory medi ator acting as a cytokine, with a proven pathogenetic role in autoimmune disorders such as RA. In vitro studies clearly demonstrated the effect of GM-CSF in the communication between resident tissue cells and activated macrophages at chronic inflammation sites, and confirmed the elevation of GM-CSF levels in inflamed synovial tissue of RA subjects compared with healthy controls. Moreover, a pivotal role of GM-CSF in the perception of pain has been clearly confirmed. Therefore, blockade of the GM-CSF pathway by monoclonal antibodies directed against the cytokine itself or its receptor has been investigated in refractory RA patients. Overall, the safety profile of GM-CSF inhibitors seems to be very favorable, with a particularly low incidence of infectious complications. The efficacy of this new mechanism of action is comparable with main competitors, even though the response rates re...
Source: Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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DiscussionIntestinal TB most commonly affected region is the ileocaecal, accounts for 64% of the incidence of gastrointestinal TB. The main reasons for the predilection of ileocaecal region are due to relatively longer faecal static, the abundant of lymphoid tissue, a neutral pH environment and absorptive transport mechanisms that allow swallowed mycobacterium to be absorbed. Intestinal TB may pose similar symptoms as those found in pulmonary TB, yet patients most commonly presenting with abdominal pain. Bacteriological signs and histopathological findings are gold standard for ITB diagnosis. Therapy for ITB includes pharm...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
We report 13 cases (11 males/2 females) of SPM. The average age was 31 ± 0.85 years. The most common precipitating factor was asthma attack. The onset symptoms were mainly chest pain (11 cases). Synchronous pneumothorax was found in 5 cases and it was bilateral in 2 patients. The evolution was marked by the spontaneous resorption. SMP is an underrecognized cause of chest pain in young adults. Chest radiography is usually sufficient for the diagnosis, and further diagnostic procedures are generally not necessary. The prognosis is often favorable.
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionAs expected, the postoperative hip function is similar, but patients’ preference is not. The latter result might be true or possibly influenced by preoperative psychological factors and mental health. The DAA and the posterolateral or direct lateral approaches have shown to lead to a similar hip function, but a majority of patients subjectively prefer the DAA.Level of evidenceIII.
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Authors: Aoun J, Hattar L, Dgaily K, Wong G, Bhat T Abstract Introduction: Transradial cardiac catheterization (TRA) was introduced in 1989 and has been universally used as an alternative approach to the traditional transfermoral access (TFA). Complications of TRA include asymptomatic and less likely symptomatic radial artery occlusion, nonocclusive radial artery injury, radial artery spasm, radial arterial perforation, radial artery pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, granuloma formation, access-site bleeding, nerve damage, complex regional pain syndrome along with other rare complications. Areas covered: A lit...
Source: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy - Category: Cardiology Tags: Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther Source Type: research
ConclusionSub-cutaneous and/ or intra-peritoneal anesthesia were not effective in reducing post-operative pain.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, Volume 26, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): SR Pena, J Brown, M Wally, R Seymour, JR Hsu, RW NaumannStudy ObjectiveTo determine opioid and benzodiazepine prescribing practices in the gynecologic oncology population and determine if this patient population is at risk for narcotic abuse.DesignThis was an IRB-approved, retrospective study of opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions for cervical, ovarian (including fallopian tube and primary peritoneal), and uterine cancer patients within a single healthcare system from January 2016 to ...
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, Volume 26, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): KW Fan, MK Shu, A Eddib, C TysonStudy ObjectiveTo compare perioperative outcomes of patients undergoing standard oncology staging versus combined oncology staging and urogynecologic procedures for pelvic floor dysfunction repair.DesignA retrospective cohort study of two gynecologic oncology patients groups who underwent robotic assisted surgical staging versus surgical staging with concomitant pelvic floor repair.SettingMany women diagnosed with a gynecologic malignancy may have comorbid ...
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionIn addition to clinical diagnosis, many demographic and health system factors are associated with use of robot-assistance for hysterectomy. This may indicate decreased access to the robot among underserved patient populations coupled with the capacity of large, urban facilities to make capital investments in robotic equipment.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionTotal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy may be feasible in the treatment of tubo-ovarian abscess by using robotic-assisted instruments. Due to the greater precision, better visualization, and higher dexterity of robotic-assisted surgeries.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionAdenomyosis is a common benign gynecologic disease, however, conservative surgical option for preserving fertility is challenging. Adenomyomectomy is a conservative surgical option for preserving fertility. Comparing with open surgery, robot-assisted laparoscopic adenomyomectomy is a feasible option of uterus-sparing surgery using minimally invasive approach.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
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