PERSPECTIVES Adaptive Immune Responses in Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections

The objective of this review is to summarize our understanding of the relationship between patterns of virus replication, adaptive immune responses, and acute liver injury in HAV and HEV infections. Gaps in knowledge, and recent studies that challenge long-held concepts of how antibodies and T cells contribute to control and pathogenesis of HAV and HEV infections, are highlighted.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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This study confirms that hepatitis E is the leading cause of acute jaundice, leads to hospitalizations in all regions in Bangladesh, occurs throughout the year, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortal ity. Effective control measures should be taken to reduce the risk of HEV infections including improvements in water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and the introduction of HEV vaccine to high-risk groups.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study’s aim is to assess migrant children’s immunity according to origin and age, and the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 329 children’s serostatus (1–16 years of age) between 2012 and 2015, using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay method. Serology and vaccine costs were based on local prices. Groups were compared with χ2 test and the age-seropositivity relationship was studied with linear regression. Results: The predominant regions were the Eastern Mediterranean and European Regions with mostly negative serologies (71% and 8...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highest in East Asia and Africa, although its incidence and mortality are rapidly rising in the United States and Europe. With the implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis C treatment programmes worldwide, the epidemiology of HCC is shifting away from a disease predominated by viral hepatitis – an increasing proportion of cases are now attributable to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Surveillance using ultrasound, with or without alpha-fetoprotein, every 6 months has been associated with improved early detection and improved overall survival; however, lim...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
PMID: 31948821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The rise of vaccine-preventable illnesses, such as measles and hepatitis, in the United States and around the globe has been alarming in recent years. For women — especially those hoping to become pregnant, as well as women who are pregnant or have recently had a baby — vaccines can be a worrisome topic. There are many misconceptions about vaccine safety in and around pregnancy that can lead to confusion and unnecessary fear of a lifesaving medical tool. As a practicing ob/gyn, I often discuss vaccines with my patients and help them sort out fears versus facts. Which vaccines should you consider before concepti...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Parenting Pregnancy Vaccines Women's Health Source Type: blogs
Abstract Vaccine against Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is part of the routine vaccination schedule in Israel since 1999. As of 2016, new recruits to the Israel Defense Forces should have been vaccinated in their childhood. This sero-survey aimed to determine immunity against HAV 18 years after childhood vaccination, and to re-evaluate the need for HAV vaccination booster upon recruitment. Two populations were studied: soldiers who were recruited during 2011-2012, who belonged to birth cohorts before childhood vaccination (BCV) was introduced; and recruits from 2017, who belonged to birth cohorts after childhood vac...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term persistence of anti-HAV antibodies was observed up to 10 years with 1-dose and 2-dose vaccine schedules, supporting booster flexibility. Statistical modeling predicted good persistence of seroprotection for each schedule up to 30 years. Natural boosting had a limited impact on seroprotection rate predictions, enabling extrapolation of these results to non-endemic settings for traveler vaccination. PMID: 31928855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
In vaccinating adults, clinicians face 2 types of challenges: (1) staying current on recommendations for influenza, pneumococcal, hepatitis A and B, zoster, and other vaccines and (2) addressing systemic barriers to implementing practices that increase vaccination rates. Although adult immunization rates remain suboptimal, there has been much good news in adult vaccination recently. New high-dose and adjuvanted influenza vaccines help improve immune response and may reduce influenza complications in older adults.
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Thematic review on vaccines Source Type: research
AbstractThe role of vaccination in the development of Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) is controversial, although cases of GBS have been reported following a wide range of vaccines. A nested case–control study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015 in three Chinese cities. Four controls were matched to a case by gender, age, address and index date. An independent expert committee validated the diagnoses of cases and controls according to the Brighton Collaboration GBS case definition. Data on vaccinations were obtained from computerized vaccination records. Causal relations were assessed by conditi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
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