Breast Cancer Dormancy in Bone

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to summarize recent experimental and clinical evidence for metastatic latency and the molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor dormancy in the bone.Recent FindingsTumor dormancy contributes to the progression of metastasis and thus has significant clinical implications for prognosis and treatment. Tumor-intrinsic signaling and specialized bone marrow niches play a pivotal role in determining the dormancy status of bone disseminated tumor cells. Experimental models have provided significant insight into the effects of the bone microenvironment on tumor cells; however, these models remain limited in their ability to study dormancy.SummaryDespite recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of how tumor cells remain dormant in the bone for prolonged periods of time, the signals that trigger spontaneous dormancy escape remain unclear. This review highlights the need for further investigation of mechanisms underlying tumor dormancy using clinically relevant models.
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

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AbstractBackground.Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used in breast cancer induce loss in bone mineral density (BMD) and are reported to increase fracture risk.Materials and Methods.Using a population‐based BMD registry, we identified women aged at least 40 years initiating AIs for breast cancer with at least 12 months of AI exposure (n = 1,775), women with breast cancer not receiving AIs (n = 1,016), and women from the general population (n = 34,205). Fracture outcomes were assessed to March 31, 2017 (mean, 6.2 years for AI users).Results.At baseline, AI users had higher body mass index (BMI), higher BMD, lower osteoporosis pr...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Breast Cancer, Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to explore the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2) in the processes that underpin bone remodelling, particularly the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and its role in the development and metastasis of cancers that target the bone.Recent FindingsMCP-1 is a key mediator of osteoclastogenesis, being the highest induced gene during intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone (iPTH), but also regulates catabolic effects of continuous PTH on bone including monocyte and macrophage recruitment, osteoclast formation and bone resorption. In concer...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Quantification of vertebral bone marrow (VBM) water –fat composition has been proposed as advanced imaging biomarker for osteoporosis. Estrogen deficiency is the primary reason for trabecular bone loss in postm...
Source: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
In this study, we hypothesized that moderately and chronically reducing ACh could attenuate the deleterious effects of aging on NMJs and skeletal muscles. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed NMJs and muscle fibers from heterozygous transgenic mice with reduced expression of the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT), VKDHet mice, which present with approximately 30% less synaptic ACh compared to control mice. Because ACh is constitutively decreased in VKDHet, we first analyzed developing NMJs and muscle fibers. We found no obvious morphological or molecular differences between NMJs and muscle fibers of VKDHet and contro...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Rossana C. Zepeda Plant-derived compounds have recently attracted greater interest in the field of new therapeutic agent development. These compounds have been widely screened for their pharmacological effects. Polyphenols, such as soy-derived isoflavones, also called phytoestrogens, have been extensively studied due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenesis. These compounds are chemically similar to 17β-estradiol, and mimic the binding of estrogens to its receptors, exerting estrogenic effects in target organs. Genistein is an isoflavone derived from soy-rich products and accounts for about 60% of total isof...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, the effects of dioscin on PMO were examined and the mechanisms were analyzed. The results indicated that the bone mineral density and ultimate load of PMO rats were increased after being treated with dioscin. H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining showed the bone trabeculae formation and bone differentiation of PMO rats were promoted by dioscin. Western blots revealed that dioscin could activate the PI3K/P38/AKT signaling pathway and inhibit the apoptosis signaling pathway in bone tissue cells of PMO rats. In addition, MTT assays showed that MC3T3-E1 cell viability could be improved by dioscin. These ...
Source: BioScience Trends - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biosci Trends Source Type: research
In conclusion, fracture risk in postmenopausal women during aromatase inhibitor treatment, in real ‐life conditions, was>40% compared to tamoxifen, corroborating previous randomized controlled trials results. In high ‐risk patients, bisphosphonate users had lower significant fracture incidence during aromatase inhibitor therapy than non‐bisphosphonate‐users. Monitoring fracture risk and related risk factors in aromatase inhibitor patients is advisable.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsDespite an apparently low fracture risk, women under denosumab for AI-treated early-stage breast cancer develop spontaneous VFs at denosumab discontinuation. This risk increases with treatment duration and may be prevented by a potent bisphosphonate.
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is the treatment of choice for menopausal symptoms and urogenital atrophy. Furthermore, it has beneficial effects on chronic diseases related to estrogen deficiency, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease [1 –4]. Women worldwide have been using MHT to alleviate their symptoms for decades. However, fear of breast cancer, hinders menopausal women from seeking medical advice and renders clinicians reluctant to prescribe MHT.
Source: Maturitas - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Clinical Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Nutritional assessment I Source Type: research
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