Improved inference of time-varying reproduction numbers during infectious disease outbreaks

We present a tool for estimating the reproduction number in real-time during infectious disease outbreaks accurately, which is available as an R software package (EpiEstim 2.2). It is also accessible as an interactive, user-friendly online interface (EpiEstim App), permitting its use by non-specialists. Our tool is easy to apply for assessing the transmission potential, and hence informing control, during future outbreaks of a wide range of invading pathogens.
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Agrawal R, Moghtader S, Ayyala U, Bandi V, Sharafkhaneh A Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major chronic debilitating condition with significant impact on quality of life, symptoms, comorbidity, health care utilization and longevity. The main pathophysiological hallmark of COPD is expiratory flow limitation which impairs the ability of respiratory system to adequately and properly ventilate. To be able to prognosticate and manage patients with COPD, various societies have developed classifications of disease severity. Current classification schemes combine three elements that incl...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
ConclusionsIt is apparent that the compliance with the immunization guidelines during pregnancy is surprisingly low. However, health professionals appear to be reluctant to recommend vaccination during pregnancy. Women appear to trust their doctors and usually agree with their recommendations.
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
AbstractObesity is a worldwide epidemic with rates nearly doubling over the last 30 years. Despite increasing prevalence, the multifactorial pathogenesis of obesity continues to be widely misunderstood. Investigating genetic drivers in the development of obesity is an important area of focus, as genetics move to the forefront of medicine and personalized treatment evolves. Thus, this narrative review focused on four genes which have genome-wide association study –documented links to obesity and obesity syndromes. We explored their involvement in the predisposition, progression, and prognosis of obesity. Leptin, lepti...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
More than 100 elephants have died in Botswana in the past two months partly because of a suspected anthrax outbreak, the government said on Tuesday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
This study assumed that the rate of imported Zika cases over time in U.S. locations would be proportional to the number of flights from Zika-affected areas. We tested this with univariate Gaussian general linear models (GLMs) by regressing imported Zika cases against FLIRT’s estimates. We ran these models on all permutations for FLIRT prediction type (one-degree connectedness and multi-degree simulation), time period (restricted to early data and all data), and aggregation level (state and airport region). Before running GLMs, all input variables were standardized by dividing by twice the standard deviation.15 To o...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract: History provides us several illustrations where epidemic outbreaks have led to biological disasters. Accidental or deliberate release of harmful micro-organisms can also lead to biological disasters. With the advent of bio-terrorism, there is a growing realisation that biological agents can also be used as weapons of mass destruction. The spread of Spanish Influenza of 1917-18, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Swine Flu (H1N1), Avian Influenza (H5N1), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), dengue, chikunguniya, Ebola o...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Type: Invited Presentation Source Type: research
By: Brooke Courtney, J.D., M.P.H. Just weeks after witnessing the fall of the World Trade Center on Sept. 11, 2001, I was a student volunteer in a New York City hospital emergency department when several people arrived saying they had been exposed to anthrax. One had even brought a small plastic bag holding white powder. Around this time, the media was reporting on letters mailed that were laced with white powder confirmed to be Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax. At the hospital, we wondered whether we might become exposed to anthrax and how it could be prevented or treated. We quickly escorted the patients who had ...
Source: Mass Device - Category: Medical Equipment Authors: Tags: Blog FDA Source Type: news
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Source: European Research in Telemedicine - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
INTRODUCTION According to the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), natural disasters are classified as geophysical, metrological, hydrological, climatological and biological. These five disaster types encompass 12 disaster types and more than 30 sub-types. The 20th Century witnessed an increase in disaster losses, and this has continued its upward trend in the current Century. Climate change will increase the rate of increase of disasters, particularly those of meteorological origin. This is reflected in the fact that, of all natural hazards, floods are the most frequent and their impacts are also i...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Source Type: research
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