Evaluation of the antileishmanial activity of biodegradable microparticles containing a Hexanic Eluate Subfraction of Maytenus guianensis Bark.

This study evaluated the antileishmanial activity of the Hexanic Eluate subfraction from Maytenus guianensis bark (HEMg) incorporated in microparticles of PLGA. One batch of microparticles produced contained HEMg (HEMgP) and another contained the PLGA polymer alone (PCTE). The microparticles were characterized in regards to diameter, Zeta potential, encapsulation rate and morphology and their cytotoxicity was evaluated against J774 macrophages. The infection assay employing peritoneal macrophages witth L. amazonensis and cytokine dosages were performed on the cell supernatants. The groups of infected BALB/C mice were treated, euthanized and the parasite load and cytokine production were evaluated. The diameters and zeta potential were: 4 μm and -11.6 mV (PCTE) and 7.8 μm and -26.7 mV (HEMgP). The encapsulation rate was ≅ 15% and the morphology of the particles was spherical and homogeneous. In the infection assay, HEMgP inhibited the amastigotes by 70% (24 hours) and 59% (48 hours) and induced IL-12 and TNF-α production. HEMg in solution reduced the number of parasites in the lymph nodes by 50% and HEMgP administration increased the levels of IL-12 and TNF-α cytokines in lymph nodes and in the lesion site. When encapsulated, HEMg maintained its antileishmanial activity, but in a more attenuated and sustained form over time, showing promise as complementary/alternative therapy against cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID: 31442456 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

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In this study, we reported the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the R. graveolens extract (Rg) and its active fraction (Rg-FAE). Also, the characterization of Rg-FAE by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis and its in vitro antileishmanial activity against Leishmania braziliensis were also performed. In vitro schistosomicidal assays were assessed against adult worms of S. mansoni, while cell viability against peritoneal macrophages was measured by MTT assay. Rg (100 μg/mL) exhibited noticeable schistosomicidal activity, causing 100% mortality and decreasing motor activity of all adult male and female schistosomes, but w...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): Fatemeh Khadir, Tahereh Taheri, Sima Habibzadeh, Farnaz Zahedifard, Elham Gholami, Maryam Heidari-Kharaji, Ahmad Oryan, Sima RafatiAbstractCutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is a parasitic disease in animals and human with no satisfactory treatments and vaccination. Rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with various applications. Here, the effect of rapamycin alone or in combination with two other drugs, namely amphotericin B (AmB) and glucantime, was investigated against Leishmania tropica infection. In...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Authors: Santos BM, Bezerra-Souza A, Aragaki S, Rodrigues E, Umehara E, Ghilardi Lago JH, Laurenti MD, Ribeiro SP, Passero LFD Abstract Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan belonging to Leishmania genus. Different clinical outcomes can be observed depending on the parasite species and patient's health condition. The outcomes can range from single cutaneous lesions to lethal visceral form. The treatment of all forms of leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials, and, in some cases, the second-line drug, amphotericin B, is used. Beside the toxicity of both classes of drugs, in some area...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antileishmanial activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgare, and Curcuma longa essential oils. Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was performed by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. Antileishmanial activity was performed against antipromastigote and intracellular amastigote of Leishmania amazonensis. Cytotoxic and nitrite production were realized in BALB/c peritoneal macrophages. The major compounds of the essential oils were cinnamic alde...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Abstract Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) ultimately plays a critical role in macrophage functions used against infectious agents. The present study investigated whether changes in G6PDH activity could influence the resistance of infected macrophages against Leishmania major infection. Mouse peritoneal and J774 macrophages were infected, respectively, ex vivo and in vitro, with L. major and then exposed to an inhibitor (6-aminonicotinamide) or activator (LPS + melatonin) of G6PDH activity for 24 h. Cell viability [using MTT assay] was measured to assess any direct toxicity from the doses of inhibito...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
In conclusion, babassu-loaded microparticles could be useful for drug targeting in the treatment of leishmaniasis, due to the immunomodulatory effect on macrophage polarization and the increased efficacy as an anti-Leishmania product after the microencapsulation. These findings are of great relevance since the development of new drugs for the treatment of neglected diseases is desirable, mainly if we consider the high morbidity and mortality rates of leishmaniasis worldwide. PMID: 30046335 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Background: Leishmaniasis is a infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Drugs available for the treatment are toxic, administered intravenously or intramuscularly and for long periods, resulting in poor adherence of patients. Parasitic resistance to current medications and therapeutic failure may occur. Thus, new drugs and alternative therapies are necessary in order to reduce treatment time and adverse effects. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a simple, non-invasive, and uses low-cost technology, which makes it accessible for the treatment of leishmaniasis.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: UMP. 564 Source Type: research
Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected infectious-parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. This disease is endemic in 98 countries with an estimate number of 350 million people in risk of infection. Approved drugs for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis have numerous limitations, such as toxicity, long treatment period, therapeutic failure, serious adverse effects and even death. Thus, it is necessary to investigate new drugs and efficient alternative therapies that ensure less prolonged treatments with few adverse effects.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: UMP. 596 Source Type: research
Conclusion: In this context, this study provides the basis for understanding the mechanism of action of strychnobiflavone in L. infantum and presents a strategy based on bioinformatics programs to screen targets of other molecules with biological action against distinct pathogens. PMID: 29785196 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
This study aims to identify the composition of extracts and fractions from Psidium brownianum and Psidium guajava through LC-MS, to evaluate its in vitro anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania brasiliensis and L. infantum epismastigote and promastigote forms, as well as mammalian cells. The results showed the presence of chemical constituents in the two Psidium species as quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid derivatives. The P. brownianum extract and fractions showed low toxicity at all tested concentrations and all samples were effective at the concentration of 1000μg/mL against the...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
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