Co-administration of toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 and 4 ligands augments immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine in chicken

AbstractToll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that mediate first line of host defence to pathogens. TLR agonists are potent immunostimulatory agents that help to prime a robust adaptive immune response. In the present study, adjuvant potential of Poly I:C and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were evaluated with live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. Cornish chickens were immunized with live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine (R2B-mesogenic strain) adjuvanted either with Poly I:C (TLR3 agonist) or LPS-TLR4 agonist and both. Humoral Immune response to ND vaccine was evaluated through haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA, while the cellular immune response (CMI) was quantified by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). IL-1 β cytokine mRNA levels in spleen tissue were also quantified by real time PCR. The results suggest that TLR3 and TLR4 agonists are an efficient immune-stimulators separately, as LPS co-administered group has shown significantly higher serum titre on second week post-immunization and Poly I:C group on third week post-immunization both by HI and ELISA (P 
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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In this study, researchers studied 438,952 participants in the UK Biobank, who had a total of 24,980 major coronary events - defined as the first occurrence of non-fatal heart attack, ischaemic stroke, or death due to coronary heart disease. They used an approach called Mendelian randomisation, which uses naturally occurring genetic differences to randomly divide the participants into groups, mimicking the effects of running a clinical trial. People with genes associated with lower blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol, and a combination of both were put into different groups, and compared against those without thes...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The objective of this study was to evaluate a single-dose anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (GonaCon, USDA/NWRC, Fort Collins, CO, USA) as a non-lethal alternative for population control in free-ranging, synanthropic male capybara. In addition to infertility efficacy of this treatment, potential effects on the alpha male's secondary sexual characteristics and agonist behavior need to be assessed because any alterations in these factors could lead to population management failure. The treatment group (n = 3) received 1 mL of the anti-GnRH vaccine, intramuscularly, and the control group (n = 2) a 1 mL s...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Emily G. Hudson, Victoria J. Brookes, Salome Dürr, Michael P. WardAbstractAustralia is free of canine rabies, however northern regions ― such as the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland ― are at risk of an incursion from nearby rabies-infected Indonesian islands. Early detection and reactive vaccination is the current Australian policy to eradicate an incursion. Early detection in this region is challenging, so pre-emptive vaccination might be an effective strategy. The NPA dog population also has a heterogeno...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study is the first to simultaneously describe transcriptomic changes in PB and ICV samples of cattle naturally infected with MAP. Several important observations were made. First, by comparing the transcriptomic profiles of two MAP-targeted tissues we described both unique and overlapping changes in the transcriptome of the infected cows versus the control group. Second, our study highlighted the ability of the RNA-Seq technology to reveal roles for genes that have not been previously implicated in the host response to MAP infection. Third, our transcriptomic analysis provided potential biomarkers for the ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Bos taurus Source Type: research
ra DF Abstract Dengue, considered the most important arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and caused by one of the four distinct serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4). Infection with one of the four serotypes provides lifelong homotypic immunity. However, immunity against the heterologous serotypes is transient. As a consequence, secondary infection may lead to severer manifestations due to cross-reactivity of antibodies and T-cells. Over 500,000 people are hospitalized every year and around 2,5 million, living in endemic areas, are...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Abstract Plants have been as medicinal mediators for centuries. Recent trends in agro-biotechnology however, improved the therapeutic roles of plants to a significant level and introduced plant-based oral vaccine which can arouse an immune response in consumer. Although conventional vaccines against infectious diseases have been administrated for years the discovery of plant-based oral vaccines can potentially replace them completely in the future. The probable limitations in conventional vaccines are found to be overcome by plant-based oral vaccines. Humans and animals will no longer be dependent upon local or sy...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Sveinung Eskeland, Snorre Stuen, Francy L. Crosby, Kari Lybeck, Anthony F. Barbet, Per-Eric Lindgren, Stig Tollefsen, Peter Wilhelmsson, Tore S. Tollersrud, Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad, Erik G. GranquistAbstractAnaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick borne bacterium, causing disease in sheep and other mammals, including humans. The bacterium has great economic and animal welfare implications for sheep husbandry in Northern Europe. With the prospect of a warmer and more humid climate, the vector availability will likely in...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Novel adjuvant technologies have a key role in the development of next-generation vaccines, due to their capacity to modulate the duration, strength and quality of the immune response. The AS01 adjuvant is used in the malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 and in the licensed herpes-zoster vaccine (Shingrix) where the vaccine has proven its ability to generate protective responses with both robust humoral and T-cell responses. For many years, animal models have provided insights into adjuvant mode-of-action (MoA), generally through investigating individual genes or proteins. Furthermore, modeling and simulation techniques can be utili...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent viral etiological agent of acute respiratory tract infection. Although RSV affects people of all ages, the disease is more severe in infants and causes significant morbidity and hospitalization in young children and in the elderly. Host factors, including an immature immune system in infants, low lymphocyte levels in patients under 5 years old, and low levels of RSV-specific neutralizing antibodies in the blood of adults over 65 years of age, can explain the high susceptibility to RSV infection in these populations. Other host factors that correlate with severe RSV di...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Biotechnology Progress - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
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