The Role of Sodium-Glucose co-Transporter -2 Inhibition in the Treatment of Patients with Heart Failure

Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Abhinav Sharma, Justin A. Ezekowitz
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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In this study, researchers studied 438,952 participants in the UK Biobank, who had a total of 24,980 major coronary events - defined as the first occurrence of non-fatal heart attack, ischaemic stroke, or death due to coronary heart disease. They used an approach called Mendelian randomisation, which uses naturally occurring genetic differences to randomly divide the participants into groups, mimicking the effects of running a clinical trial. People with genes associated with lower blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol, and a combination of both were put into different groups, and compared against those without thes...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the clinical trial data and underlying mechanistic principles in support of the robust cardiovascular (CV) benefits, in particular, heart failure (HF) outcomes association with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.Recent FindingsSeveral large CV outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and with either established atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) or at high risk for ASCVD reveal that SGLT2 inhibitors cause reductions in CV and HF endpoints. The reduction in ASCVD appears to be confined to those with established ASCVD on the order of ≈ 14%...
Source: Current Cardiology Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Carvacrol protected against DCM in mice with T1DM and T2DM by restoring PI3K/AKT signaling-mediated GLUT4 membrane translocation and is a potential treatment of DCM.
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Mony Shuvy, Donna R. Zwas, Chaim Lotan, Andre Keren, Israel GotsmanAbstractBackgroundUrinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and may have an impact on clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of UACR on clinical outcome in a real-world cohort of patients with HF.MethodsAll patients with HF at a health maintenance organization were followed for cardiac-related hospitalizations and death.ResultsThe study cohort included 4,668 HF patients and was divided into 3 groups based on U...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
We propose a unifying perspective of heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reasoning is as follows: cellular responses to fuel overload include dysregulated insulin signaling, impaired mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species formation and the accumulation of certain metabolites, collectively termed glucolipotoxicity. As a consequence, cardiac function is impaired with intracellular calcium cycling and diastolic dysfunction as an early manifestation. In this setting, increasing glucose uptake by insulin or insulin sensitizing agents only worsens the disrupted fuel homeostasis of the heart.
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Heart failure is the leading cause of death among diabetic people. Cellular and molecular entities leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy are, however, poorly understood. Coupling of cardiac carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) to form a transport metabolon was analyzed in obese type 2 diabetic mice (ob −/−) and control heterozygous littermates (ob+/−). Echocardiography showed elevated systolic interventricular septum thickness and systolic posterior wall thickness in ob−/− mice at 9 and 16 weeks.
Source: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Source Type: research
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) receptors are primarily located in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. These receptors are responsible for almost 90-95% of tubular reabsorption of the glucose in the nephron. In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), due to upregulation of SGLT2 receptors, glucose reabsorption is further increased. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SGLT2 inhibitors, such as canagliflozin, empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and ertugliflozin, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Source: The American Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study sought to determine the relevance of sNEP as a biomarker in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and to compare circulating sNEP levels in HFpEF patients with normal controls.MethodsA case-control study was performed in 242 symptomatic HFpEF patients previously enrolled in the Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (RELAX) and Nitrates’s Effect on Activity Tolerance in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection (NEAT-HFpEF) clinical trials and 891 asymptomatic subjects without HF or diastolic dysfunction...
Source: JACC: Heart Failure - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The occurrence of pathological FFR values, most frequently documented in the LAD, was the same in patients with or without HFrEF, HFpEF, diabetes mellitus, AF, and LVH, demonstrating that these comorbidities did not influence FFR values and, thus, the indication for PCI. PMID: 31485776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Herz - Category: Cardiology Tags: Herz Source Type: research
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