Ambient ammonia does not appear to inhibit the immune response to infectious bronchitis virus vaccination and protection from homologous challenge in broiler chickens

This study examined the effect of NH3 on the immune response to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccination and protection against homologous serotype challenge in commercial broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks were administered IBV vaccine and exposed to 30-60 ppm of NH3. At 28 DOA, birds were challenged oculonasally with a pathogenic homologous IBV, and protection was measured by viral detection, clinical signs, ciliostasis, and presence of airsacculitis. IBV-specific serum IgG and lacrimal fluid IgA titers, as well as Harderian gland (HG) immune cell phenotypes, were evaluated. Ammonia exposure was associated with an increased incidence of airsacculitis among non-vaccinated, challenged birds. Vaccinated, NH3-exposed birds were completely protected from IBV challenge. Ammonia had subtle effects on cilia morphology and function but did not affect vaccine or challenge virus replication and clearance, clinical signs, ciliostasis, tracheal histopathology scores, or immune responses. In the HG of vaccinated birds, the percent of leukocytes, MHC I+/MHC IIhi expression, IgM+ expression, and CD8+ expression was increased, while mucosal IgA and serum IgG titers were nominal. Non-vaccinated, IBV-challenged birds exhibited an increased percent of leukocytes, MHC I+/MHC IIhi expression, and IgM+ expression in the HG at 5 dpc, followed by increased mucosal IgA and serum IgG titers and CD8+ expression at 10-14 dpc. In contrast, vaccinated, IBV-challenged birds had a minimal inc...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Related Links:

In this study, we aimed to elucidate the specific amino acids contributing to S2 epitopes. Site mutagenesis and peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that 16R in S2 protein was a key amino acid mediating the antigenicity of S2 protein. S2-derived peptides with 16R, but not those with 16 K, could react with sera against different types of IBVs. Notably, a commercial ELISA kit for detection of antibodies against IBV did not react with sera against all types of IBVs. Taken together, these data demonstrated that S2-derived peptides with 16R could be used as novel marker-based antigens for deve...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CP Abstract In backyard farms of Lao People's Democratic Republic, mixed-species rearing of poultry is a breeding-ground for cross-species transmission. Here, the epidemiology of viruses circulating among backyard poultry in Vientiane Province was assessed to guide future control strategies. Oral/tracheal and cloacal swabs, collected from 605 poultry (308 ducks, 297 chickens) between 2011 and 2015, were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Coronavirus (CoV) and Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV). Chicken sera were screened for anti-NDV antibodies by ELISA. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses revealed tran...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Among the major drivers of the Antimicrobial Resistance crisis is the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in livestock and feed. Credit: Germán Miranda/IPS. By Tharanga YakupitiyageUNITED NATIONS, May 21 2019 (IPS) Antimicrobial resistance is quickly becoming a global crisis and risks reversing a century of progress in health. Some organisations have already geared up and are tackling the issue from its roots. In a new report, the United Nations Interagency Coordination Group (IACG) on Antimicrobial Resistance estimates that antibiotic resistance could cause 10 million deaths each year by 2050. Already, drug-resistan...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Featured Global Headlines Health IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse North America Regional Categories Sustainability TerraViva United Nations Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) WHO Source Type: news
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The Bakaletz laboratory ’ s research focus is attempting to understand the pathogenic mechanisms operational in the highly prevalent pediatric disease, otitis media (OM) (or middle ear infection). Specifically, we are interested in elucidating how upper respiratory tract viruses predispose the middle ear to invasion by any of the three predominant bacterial pathogens of OM (nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae). We are also interested in understanding how bacterial biofilms contribute to the recurrence and chronicity o...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video
In conclusion, we found several interesting MHC-B related immune correlates of protection and that flow cytometric analysis can be employed to study correlates of IBV-vaccine-induced protection. PMID: 30763593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Developmental and Comparative Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Dev Comp Immunol Source Type: research
AbstractInfectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a major disease problem for the poultry industry worldwide. The currently used live-attenuated vaccines have the tendency to mutate and/or recombine with circulating field strains resulting in the emergence of vaccine-derived variant viruses. In order to circumvent these issues, and to develop a vaccine that is more relevant to Egypt and its neighboring countries, a recombinant avirulent Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strain LaSota was constructed to express the codon-optimized S glycoprotein of the Egyptian IBV variant strain IBV/Ck/EG/CU/4/2014 belonging to GI-23 lineage, ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, the prevalence and spatial distribution of Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and avian influenza have been evaluated in commercial broiler farms in 31 provinces in Iran. In this survey, a total of 233 affected broiler chicken farms were sampled. The infectious bronchitis virus (alone) was detected with highest frequency in 60 farms, and separately or combined with other agents, in 110 farms; Newcastle disease virus, separately, was detected in 28 farms, and in 63 farms separately or combined with other infectious agents; and avian influenza H9N2 was detected in 22 farms separately and in 51 farms sep...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusion The results obtained from this research shows, in general, the fragility in the social and political infrastructure necessary to improve the living conditions of populations, particularly those that depend on family agriculture in drought prone areas. The conditions of social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities presented in the region can be amplified by the drought process, and can aggravate the impacts resulting drought events, thus disadvantaging the population of this region, as shown in the Fig. 1. The general perception of the interviewees of the health sector shows an agreement with what is found...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we compared two vaccination program using 793/B type and Massachusetts type vaccine. One-day-old SPF chickens were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 were unvaccinated groups. Group 3 was vaccinated with the H120 vaccine at day 1 and 793/B at day 14 (eye drop), and group 4 was vaccinated with H120+793/B (eye drop) on the first day and 793/B at day 14. Groups 2, 3, and 4 challenged (oculonasal) with QX genotype (104 EID50) at day 35. Five days post challenge, the sample were clollected for ciliostasis test, histopathology, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR from trachea, lung, and kidneys. Results showed...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Bronchitis | Respiratory Medicine | Study | Vaccines | Veterinary Research | Veterinary Vaccinations