Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Potentials, Advances, and Limitations.

Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Potentials, Advances, and Limitations. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2019 Aug 23;: Authors: Kolagar TA, Farzaneh M, Nikkar N, Anbiyaiee A, Heydari E, Khoshnam SE Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive and uncontrolled gradual loss of motor neurons function or death of neuron cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and the mechanisms underlying their progressive nature remain elusive. There is urgent need to investigate therapeutic strategies and novel treatments for neural regeneration in disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently, the development and identification of pluripotent stem cells enabling the acquisition of a large number of neural cells in order to improve cell recovery after neurodegenerative disorders. Pluripotent stem cells which consist of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are characterized by their ability to indefinitely self-renew and the capacity to differentiate into different types of cells. The first human ESC lines were established from donated human embryos; while, because of a limited supply of donor embryos, human ESCs derivation remains ethically and politically controversial. Hence, hiPSCs-based therapies have been shown as an effective replacement for human ESCs without embryo destruction. Compared to the invas...
Source: Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Curr Stem Cell Res Ther Source Type: research

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In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract We have chosen to test the safety of human intracerebroventricular (ICV) brain injections of autologous non-genetically-modified adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (ADSVF). In this IRB-approved trial, 24 patients received ICV ADSVF via an implanted reservoir between 5/22/14 and 5/22/17. Seven others were injected via their ventriculo-peritoneal shunts. Ten patients had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 6 had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 6 had progressive multiple sclerosis (MS-P), 6 had Parkinson's "Plus" (PD+), 1 had spinal cord injury, 1 had traumatic brain injury, and 1 had stroke. Med...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Aspects This review summarizes available NTF expression data, compiles existing evidence on the effects of glial NTF signaling in healthy conditions and in disease models (Figure 1), and highlights the importance of this topic for future studies. The relationship between NTFs and glia is crucial for both the developing and adult brain. While some of these factors, such as NT-3 and CNTF, have highly potent effects on gliogenesis, others like BDNF and GDNF, are important for glia-mediated synapse formation. Neurotrophic factors play significant roles during neurodegenerative disorders. In many cases, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion The key problem with the ND field is the lack of understanding in the events preceding the development of protein-based markers – such as Tau – currently used to diagnose NDs. By this stage, the diseases become more difficult to treat. SncRNAs play an important regulatory role in the maintenance of the homeostatic brain. Therefore, changes in their concentration levels can be indicative of mechanistic changes that could precede protein-based markers. One single sncRNA biomarker is unlikely to differentiate between diseases. However, a combination of sncRNA biomarkers could be illustrative of the me...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions: We demonstrated in the SOD1G93A model of ALS that increased levels of several cytokines were associated with a shorter lifespan. However, their role as prognostic biomarkers is unclear as their expression was very variable depending on both the disease stage and the subject. Nevertheless, cytokines may be potential therapeutic targets. Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common rare diseases of unknown origin that leads to progressive motor neuron degeneration and muscle denervation (1). In particular, it has been described that either distal axonopathy or neuromuscular ju...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we show that calorie restriction is protective against age-related increases in senescence and microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of aging. Further, these protective effects mitigated age-related decline in neuroblast and neuronal production, and enhanced olfactory memory performance, a behavioral index of neurogenesis in the SVZ. Our results support the concept that calorie restriction might be an effective anti-aging intervention in the context of healthy brain aging. Greater Modest Activity in Late Life Correlates with Lower Incidence of Dementia ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Glycosylation, the enzymatic process by which glycans are attached to proteins and lipids, is the most abundant and functionally important type of post-translational modification associated with brain development, neurodegenerative disorders, psychopathologies and brain cancers. Glycan structures are diverse and complex; however, they have been detected and targeted in the central nervous system (CNS) by various immunohistochemical detection methods using glycan-binding proteins such as anti-glycan antibodies or lectins and/or characterized with analytical techniques such as chromatography and mass spectr...
Source: Biochemical Society Transactions - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Soc Trans Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TIGIT is a prominent negative immune regulator involved in immunosenescence. This novel finding is highly significant, as targeting TIGIT might be an effective strategy to improve the immune response and decrease age-related comorbidities. Delivery of Extracellular Vesicles as a Potential Basis for Therapies https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/01/delivery-of-extracellular-vesicles-as-a-potential-basis-for-therapies/ Here I'll point out a readable open access review paper on the potential use of extracellular vesicles as a basis for therapy: harveste...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
k P Abstract Stem cells have the capability of self-renewal and can differentiate into different cell types that might be used in regenerative medicine. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) currently lack effective treatments. Although stem cell therapy is still on the way from bench to bedside, we consider that it might provide new hope for patients suffering with neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we will give an overview of recent studies on the potential therapeutic use of mesenchymal st...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
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