Imaging Evaluation of Lung Transplantation Patients: A Time and Etiology-based Approach to High-resolution Computed Tomography Interpretation

Lung transplantation is an established therapeutic option for patients with irreversible end-stage pulmonary disease limiting life expectancy and quality of life. Common indications for lung transplantation include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Complications of lung transplantation can be broadly divided etiologically into surgical, infectious, immunologic, or neoplastic. Moreover, specific complications often occur within a certain time interval following surgery, which can be broadly classified as early (6 mo). Thus, each group of complications can further be categorized on the basis of the time continuum from transplantation. Imaging, primarily by high-resolution computed tomography, plays a critical role in early diagnosis of complications after lung transplantation. Early recognition of complications by the radiologist, and initiation of therapy, contributes to improved morbidity and mortality. However, accurate diagnosis is only feasible if one has a thorough understanding of the major etiologic categories of complications and how they relate to the time course since transplantation. We review imaging manifestations of lung transplant complications via a framework that includes the following major etiologic categories: surgical; infectious; immunologic; and neoplastic; and the following time frames: surgery to 6 weeks; 6 weeks to 6 months;...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging - Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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In this study, a series of porous mineralized collagen/PCL scaffolds with different pore features were fabricated via freeze-drying and applied in a Sprague Dawley rat cranial bone calvarial defect model. The pore size for four groups increased from 10–45 μm to 40–130 μm. As scaffold porosity increased, the compressive strength decreased from 2.09 ± 0.12 MPa to 0.51 ± 0.04 MPa. The micro-computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction images showed that as pore size and porosity increased, the amount of new bone formation had a maximum in group 3 (pore size: 20–100...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
In this study, we developed a programmed electrospun 3D NF collector. It can precisely control the moving speed of NF collector during electrospinning; thereby fabricating 3D NFs with desired microstructures (pore size, pore volume, and interconnectivity). Four types of polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D NF matrices with different microstructures can be obtained concurrently on the NF collector surface, which are set by different forward moving speed of the NF collector device: NF-zero (no move, as control), NF-low (0.085 mm/min), NF-mid (0.158 mm/min) and NF-high (0.232 mm/min). A linear increase of the NF sheet thickness (f...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Authors: Andrade López AC, Bande Fernández JJ, Díaz Corte C PMID: 31515062 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medicina Clinica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Med Clin (Barc) Source Type: research
Conclusions: Some normotensive IgA nephropathy patients with mild proteinuria had impaired renal function at diagnosis. Ischemic sclerosis and fibrous crescent were the main pathological features in these patients. Patients in the crescent group had a worse outcome than patients in the ischemic sclerosis group. PMID: 31517550 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Renal Failure - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Ren Fail Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Emiliana Echeverría, Ana Julia Velez Rueda, Maia Cabrera, Ezequiel Juritz, Valeria Burghi, Lucas Fabián, Carlos Davio, Pablo Lorenzano Menna, Natalia Cristina FernándezAbstractAimsG protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are mainly involved in the desensitization of GPCRs. Among them, GRK2 has been described to be upregulated in many pathological conditions and its crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension, and heart failure promoted the search for pharmacological inhibitors of its activity. There have b...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: 14 September 2019Source: New Scientist, Volume 243, Issue 3247Author(s): CW
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Conclusions: P. aeruginosa-derived flagellin-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in bronchial epithelial cells, which partially explains the mechanisms of progression and exacerbation of COPD. Corticosteroids are the most effective treatment for the suppression of flagellin-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in the bronchial epithelial cells. PMID: 31517562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Lung Research - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research
Authors: Cômes J, Prieur G, Combret Y, Gravier FE, Bonnevie T, Medrinal C PMID: 31514554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: COPD Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology &NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Qian Ke, Lin Yang, Qinghua Cui, Wenqi Diao, Youyi Zhang, Ming Xu, Bei HeAbstractAirway remodeling is a key pathological lesion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it leads to poorly reversible airway obstruction. Current pharmacological interventions are ineffective at controlling airway remodeling. To address this issue, we queried the Connectivity Map (cMap) database to screen for drug candidates that had the potential to dilate the bronchus and inhibit airway smooth muscle (ASM) proliferation. ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
We examined the relationship between worry about pregnancy health and pre-eclampsia. General stress, mental health, and self-reported pregnancy health worry were measured in a study of 10,037 U.S. nulliparous women. Logistic regression found a dose-response relationship between first trimester pregnancy-health worry and subsequent pre-eclampsia onset, controlling for health history (Beta = 0.40, SE = 0.09, P 
Source: Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Womens Cardiovascular Health - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency | Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery | Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary | CT Scan | Cystic Fibrosis | Hypertension | Lung Transplant | Radiology | Transplant Surgery | Transplants