Diagnostic value of  alternative techniques to gadolinium-based contrast agents in MR neuroimaging—a comprehensive overview

AbstractGadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase lesion detection and improve disease characterization for many cerebral pathologies investigated with MRI. These agents, introduced in the late 1980s, are in wide use today. However, some non-ionic linear GBCAs have been associated with the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with kidney failure. Gadolinium deposition has also been found in deep brain structures, although it is of unclear clinical relevance. Hence, new guidelines from the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine advocate cautious use of GBCA in clinical and research practice. Some linear GBCAs were restricted from use by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 2017.This review focuses on non-contrast-enhanced MRI techniques that can serve as alternatives for the use of GBCAs. Clinical studies on the diagnostic performance of non-contrast-enhanced as well as contrast-enhanced MRI methods, both well established and newly proposed, were included. Advantages and disadvantages together with the diagnostic performance of each method are detailed. Non-contrast-enhanced MRIs discussed in this review are arterial spin labeling (ASL), time of flight (TOF), phase contrast (PC), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and amide proton transfer  (APT) imaging.Ten common diseases were identified for which studies reported comparisons of non-contrast-enhan...
Source: Insights into Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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ConclusionOur case shows that diffuse midline glioma is a CNS tumor not limited to young population but occurring also in middle aged patients with an insidious pattern. We therefore recommend to perform biopsy at very early stages in patients with atypical brainstem lesions.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In conclusion, patients with stroke have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. PMID: 31538460 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
Authors: Lim JS PMID: 31538420 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Jang MU, Kang J, Kim BJ, Hong JH, Yeo MJ, Han MK, Lee BC, Yu KH, Oh MS, Choi KC, Lee SH, Hong KS, Cho YJ, Park JM, Cha JK, Kim DH, Park TH, Lee KB, Lee SJ, Lee J, Kim JT, Kim DE, Choi JC, Lee J, Lee JS, Gorelick PB, Bae HJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Using data from a large national stroke registry, we aimed to investigate the incidence and determinants of in-hospital and post-discharge recovery after acute ischemic stroke and the independence of their occurrence. METHODS: In-hospital recovery was defined as an improvement of 4 points or> 40% in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ...
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by comparing its outcomes to those of the ARUBA study. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ARUBA-eligible patients treated with GKS from June 2002 to September 2017 and compared against those in the ARUBA study. AVM obliteration and hemorrhage rates, and clinical outcomes following GKS were also evaluated. RESULTS: The ARUBA-eligible cohort comprised 264 patients. The Spetzler-Martin grade was Grade I to II in 52.7% and III to IV in 47.3% of the patients. The mean AVM nidus volu...
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research
The 2015 trials for interventional management of stroke yielded high rates of recanalization and good functional outcome. The DAWN (DWI or CTP Assessment with Clinical Mismatch in the Triage of Wake-up and Late Presenting Strokes Undergoing Neurointervention with Trevo; NCT02142283) and DEFUSE 3 (Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke 3; NCT02586415) trials (1,2) demonstrated effectiveness for up to 24 hours (2). The workflow analysis of the SWIFT-PRIME (Solitaire with the Intention for Thrombectomy as PRIMary Endovascular Treatment; NCT01657461) trial data showed that there was a 91% probabi...
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Letter Section Source Type: research
We describe the case of a 52-year-old female outpatient who developed OIC while receiving oxycodone for pain due to cancer with multiple bone metastases. Although she did not have brain metastasis, opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS) developed after taking naldemedine orally. Her Clinical Opiate-Withdrawal Score (COWS) was 19 (moderate symptoms). However, she recovered from OWS on intravenous fentanyl and a continuous infusion of oxycodone. She did not develop OWS thereafter and was discharged two days after recovery. PMID: 31534081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Contributor : Hideto KosoSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusThe goal of this study is profile gene expression patterns of Foxr2-induced brain tumor cells. Foxr2 overexpression in the brain induced tumor formation in the olfactory bulb (OB) and the brainstem (BS) under the p53 deficient background. Tumor cells were cultured in vitro, which resulted in sphere formation. Sphere-forming cells were used for gene expression analysis. Immortalized primary astroglia (AG) was analzyed for comparison.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Journal of Advanced ResearchAuthor(s): Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Luana Billeri, Veronica Agata Andronaco, Maria Accorinti, Demetrio Milardi, Antonino Cannavò, Enrico Aliberti, Angela Militi, Placido Bramanti, Antonino NaroAbstractBody weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) can be usefully employed to facilitate gait recovery in patients with neurological injuries. Specifically, lower body positive pressure support system (LBPPSS) decreases weight-bearing and ground reaction forces with potentially positive effects on qualitative gait indice...
Source: Journal of Advanced Research - Category: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionsEGFR CN gain may be associated with inferior outcomes in young adults with newly diagnosed,IDH-WT GBM, suggesting a potential role for targeting EGFR in this population.
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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