New tuberculosis vax could improve protection

Australian researchers have successfully developed and tested a new type of vaccine targeting tuberculosis.
Source: PharmaManufacturing.com - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

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The lungs are the most vulnerable site for air-borne infections. Immunologic compartmentalization of the lungs into airway lumen and interstitium has paved the way to determine the immune status of the site of pathogen entry, which is crucial for the outcome of any air-borne infections. Vaccination via the nasal route with Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), a prospective candidate vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), has been reported to confer superior protection as compared to the subcutaneous (s.c.) route in small-animal models of TB. However, the immune mechanism remains only partly understood. Here, we showed that intr...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest diseases, causing ~2 million deaths annually worldwide. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only TB vaccine in common use, is effective against disseminated and meningeal TB in young children but is not effective against adult pulmonary TB. T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-) and Th17 cells producing interleukin-17 (IL-17) play key roles in host protection against TB, whereas Th2 cells producing IL-4 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) facilitate TB disease progression by inhibiting protective Th1 and Th17 responses. Furthermore, the longe...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
The administration of a high fat content diet is an accelerating factor for metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and early type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to assess the impact of a high fat diet on tuberculosis progression and microbiota composition in an experimental animal model using a C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain submitted to single or multiple consecutive aerosol infections. These models allowed us to study the protection induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination as well as by the natural immunity induced by chemotherapy after a low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our results show ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
A 25 year-old tuberculosis patient is treated at her home in Funafuti, the main island of Tuvalu in the South Pacific. Credit: UNDP Tuvalu/Aurélia Rusek.By External SourceUNITED NATIONS, Oct 17 2019 (IPS) A staggering 1.5 million people died from tuberculosis (TB) last year, the UN health agency said on Thursday, in an appeal for far greater funding and political support to eradicate the curable and preventable disease. Caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB commonly causes persistent coughing, fatigue and weight loss. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and its latest Global TB Report, a...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health Poverty & SDGs Source Type: news
Authors: Pu F, Feng J, Yang L, Zhang L, Xia P Abstract Compared to other diseases, early or atypical spinal tuberculosis (TB) is prone to being misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations and misleading negative results of various laboratory analyses and imaging examinations. Various methods for diagnosing spinal TB have become research hotspots. Recently, it has been proposed that effective vaccination is a mainstay of long-term policies to combat and control the TB epidemic. However, some new TB vaccines require further evaluation and clinical trials to demonstrate their efficiency and safety...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: IDCasesAuthor(s): Lazara Karelia Montane Jaime, Patrick E. Akpaka, Sehlule Vuma, Angel A Justiz-VaillantAbstractA 56-year-old woman who vaccinated as a child with the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), now tests positive to the tuberculin skin test (TST) but test negative to the Quantiferon Gold assay. She has no history of tuberculosis contact and is asymptomatic. This dilemma now is, should be treated for tuberculosis or not, based only on the TST results? To prevent these false positive results with TST and avoid treatment with isoniazid (INH) it may be helpful to u...
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Gilla KaplanAbstractTuberculosis incidence is projected to decline at too slow a rate to meet the targets set at the UN high level meeting on ending tuberculosis, convened in New York in 2018. To understand the causes of the slow progress in tuberculosis control, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation supported a patient-pathway analysis that identified significant gaps with patients being “lost” at all points along the care cascade. Although each country differed in the reasons for failure, some comm...
Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of two attenuated vaccines, BCG and MTBVAC, after each was given to 17 goats (2  months old) and then exposed for 9 months to goats infected withM. caprae. In general, MTBVAC-vaccinated goats showed higher interferon-gamma release than BCG vaccinated goats in response to bovine protein purified derivative and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens and the response was significantly higher than that observed in the control group until challenge. All animals showed lesions consistent with TB at the end of the study. Goats that received either vaccine showed significantly ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, European countries now have more comprehensive national vaccination programs for HCP, however there are still gaps. Given the recent large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe and the occupational risk for HCP, vaccination policies need to be expanded and strengthened in several European countries. Overall, vaccination policies for HCP in Europe should be periodically re-evaluated in order to provide optimal protection against vaccine-preventable diseases and infection control within healthcare facilities for HCP and patients. PMID: 31623916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conditions:   Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Protection Against;   Tuberculosis Interventions:   Biological: ChadOx1 85A - aerosol;   Biological: ChadOx1 85A - IM Sponsors:   François Spertini;   University of Oxford Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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