Intestinal enteroids/organoids: A novel platform for drug discovery in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Intestinal enteroids/organoids: A novel platform for drug discovery in inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Aug 14;25(30):4125-4147 Authors: Yoo JH, Donowitz M Abstract The introduction of biologics such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibodies followed by anti-integrins has dramatically changed the therapeutic paradigm of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Furthermore, a newly developed anti-p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 (ustekinumab) has been recently approved in the United States for patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease who have failed treatment with anti-TNFs. However, these immunosuppressive therapeutics which focus on anti-inflammatory mechanisms or immune cells still fail to achieve long-term remission in a significant percentage of patients. This strongly underlines the need to identify novel treatment targets beyond immune suppression to treat IBD. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the pathogenesis of IBD. Physical, biochemical and immunologic driven barrier dysfunctions of epithelial cells contribute to the development of IBD. In addition, the recent establishment of adult stem cell-derived intestinal enteroid/organoid culture technology has allowed an exciting opportunity to study human IECs comprising all normal epithelial cells. This long-term epithelial culture model can be generated from endoscopic biopsies or surgical rese...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

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Contributors : Carolina Serena ; Miriam Ejarque ; Alfonso Saera ; Joan Vendrell ; Sonia Fern ández-VeledoSeries Type : Methylation profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensPathological expansion of adipose tissue (AT) is supported by adipocyte precursors, termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Elucidation of mechanisms underlying ASC function may lead to therapeutic interventions to use in cell therapy treatments on Crohn ’s disease patients. Using epigenome-wide association studies, we explored the impact of Crohn’s disease on the methylation signature of human ASCs
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Methylation profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Medical treatment remains the mainstay of perianal disease management for CD; however, aggressive surgical management should be considered for severe or recurrent disease. In all cases of perianal CD, medical and surgical treatments should be used in tandem by a multidisciplinary team. Significant development has been made in the treatment of Crohn's-related fistulas, particularly minimally invasive options with recent clinical trials showing success with mesenchymal stem cell applications. Inevitably, some patients with severe refractory disease may require fecal diversion or proctectomy. When considering reversal of a di...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Radiation therapy and pelvic operation for cancer were more common causes than birth injury, and these causes of rectovaginal fistula were the most important prognostic factors. An individualized approach and repeated surgeries with complex or newly developed procedures, even among high-risk causes of fistula, may be necessary to achieve successful closure. PMID: 31508396 [PubMed]
Source: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research - Category: Surgery Tags: Ann Surg Treat Res Source Type: research
Conditions:   Crohn's Disease;   Fistula;   Anal Fistula;   Pouch, Ileal;   Pouches, Ileoanal Intervention:   Drug: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) Sponsor:   The Cleveland Clinic Not yet recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Lanzi Gaetana, Masneri Stefania, Ferraro Rosalba Monica, Genova Elena, Piovani Giovanna, Barisani Chiara, Pelin Marco, Stocco Gabriele, Decorti Giuliana, Bramuzzo Matteo, Giliani SilviaAbstractCrohn's disease is a debilitating and incurable chronic inflammatory bowel disease, affecting millions of individuals worldwide, with an increasing frequency. Surgery must be applicable in half of the cases often with a disabling course, and pharmacological treatments may have adverse complications. We generated three isogenic clones of iPSCs from p...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
AbstractAplastic anemia (AA) has been reported to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but mostly with ulcerative colitis (UC). Little is known about the associations between AA and Crohn ’s disease (CD). We aim to determine the portraits of patients with AA-CD. Among a total of 657 patients with CD registered in Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases IBD center from January 2008 to October 2018, the patients diagnosed with concurrent AA were reviewed. Clinical presentation, medical history, endoscopic features, response to treatment, and prognosis in this set of patients were collected. Six male patie...
Source: Annals of Hematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
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