Gaze as an Indicator of Selective Attention in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

AbstractAttention bias, conceptualized to be involved in the development and maintenance of SAD, may differentiate teens with SAD from those without. Although SAD typically emerges during adolescence, eye-tracking research has not explicitly focused on biased attention in adolescents with SAD relative to healthy controls, using stimuli specifically developed for adolescents, thus prompting the rationale for the present study. Youth with SAD were quicker to fixate their gaze on angry faces and maintained their gaze longer toward both angry and neutral faces. Findings suggest that socially anxious teenagers demonstrate bias, relative to teens without SAD. The bias is marked by shortened latency to fixate on angry faces. Additionally, given that the adolescents with SAD also exhibited longer initial fixation duration to both angry and neutral faces, relative to controls, these results suggest the possibility of heightened reactivity to social stimuli regardless of emotional valence. Alternatively, it may be the case, that youth with SAD perceive neutral faces as threatening.  Given the role attention bias plays in the etiology and maintenance of SAD, better understanding of the cognitive processes which underlie the disorder is warranted. The current study offers initial findings for informing treatment for adolescents with the condition.
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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AbstractThe processing of facial expressions is biased in social anxiety (SA). We tested whether a brief situational context training in the school setting might be helpful in changing biased facial processing and reducing relevant symptoms in children with SA. A final sample of 118 children aged 8 to 13  years with high vs. low SA were randomly assigned to a training group or a control group without intervention. During the training, the children were exposed to images depicting negative facial expressions with masked and later unmasked backgrounds, in order to demonstrate that negative expression s can also occur in...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Discussion Children can be non-verbal for many reasons with most just not wanting to talk in a given situation for a short period of time (e.g. angry with a person, scared to give a speech at school, etc.). Children may have the ability to communicate verbally but for some reason it is physically impaired for a period of time. Selective mutism (SM) “… is characterized by an individual’s consistent failure to speak in social situations in which there is an expectation to speak (e.g., at school), despite speaking in other situations.” The lack of speech cannot be due to discomfort speaking in a give...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
AbstractThe current study aimed to investigate the content of negative self-imagery (NSI) in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and to explore the relationship between NSI and other maintaining variables. Eighty-six individuals (83.7% female) with SAD completed self-report questionnaires and a semi-structured imagery interview. Thematic analysis was used to assess core themes from the interview transcripts. Mediation analyses were employed to explore the relationship between NSI and other variables of interest. Imagery characteristics supported extant findings, such that they appeared distorted, from an observer perspective, an...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate (1) the impact of within-person level negative emotions and maladaptive ER strategies on drinking among individuals with SAD, and (2) t he moderating effect of specific maladaptive ER strategies (avoidance, rumination, suppression) on the relationship between negative emotions and alcohol craving in daily life via an ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results revealed that the SAD group (n = 66) showed a higher increase rate in alcohol craving when they were socially anxious, tense and lonely than the non-SAD group (n = 53). In moderation analyses, maladaptive...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Adolescent social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common, impairing and persistent. There is a need to intervene early to avert its long-term consequences. Cognitive Therapy for SAD is the leading treatment for adul...
Source: Trials - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research
Authors: Pelissolo A, Abou Kassm S, Delhay L Abstract Introduction: Classical well-established treatments of social anxiety disorder (SAD) are now complemented by more recent therapeutic strategies. This review aims to summarize available therapies for SAD and discuss recent evidence-based findings on the management of this disorder. Areas covered: Recent guidelines recommend psychotherapy, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and pharmacotherapy, as first-line treatments of patients with SAD, without a clear superiority of one option over the other. CBT includes classical approaches such as in vivo exposu...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
Abstract Although impressive progress has been made toward developing empirically-supported psychological treatments, the reality remains that a significant proportion of people with mental health problems do not receive these treatments. Finding ways to reduce this treatment gap is crucial. Since app-supported smartphone interventions are touted as a possible solution, access to up-to-date guidance around the evidence base and clinical utility of these interventions is needed. We conducted a meta-analysis of 66 randomized controlled trials of app-supported smartphone interventions for mental health problems....
Source: World Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: World Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study sought to develop and evaluate a measure of CPB relevant to emerging adults (CPBQ-EA), and examine the relationship between anxiety and parenting behaviors, including; CPB, overprotection, rejection, and warmth. A sample of 442 18 –25 year-olds completed self-report measures of anxiety and parenting. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three CPB domains; social, novelty, and competition. Greater social CPB was associated with lower social anxiety scores in emerging adults, but only when exhibited by fathers. Greater rejec tion exhibited by both parents was associated with higher emerging adult&n...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The EMBRACE intervention was designed to provide young people with the necessary skills and confidence to overcome social anxiety within a supportive, safe online space. By design, it allows young people the opportunity to practice their newly learnt skills to connect with others and in doing so, learn to embrace their true authentic selves.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2019Source: Journal of Anxiety DisordersAuthor(s): Fredrik Santoft, Sigrid Salomonsson, Hugo Hesser, Elin Lindsäter, Brjánn Ljótsson, Mats Lekander, Göran Kecklund, Lars-Göran Öst, Erik Hedman-LagerlöfAbstractAlthough cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder, little is known about the processes during treatment that bring about change. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the proposed processes of change according to the cognitive model of social anxiety disorder predicted subsequent s...
Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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