Red blood cell dysfunction: a new player in cardiovascular disease

AbstractThe primary role of red blood cells (RBCs) is to transport oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide to the lungs. However, emerging evidence suggests an important role of the RBC beyond being just a passive carrier of the respiratory gases. The RBCs are of importance for redox balance and are actively involved in the regulation of vascular tone, especially during hypoxic and ischaemic conditions by the release of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity and adenosine triphosphate. The role of the RBC has gained further interest after recent discoveries demonstrating a markedly altered function of the cell in several pathological conditions. Such alterations include increased adhesion capability, increased formation of reactive oxygen species as well as altered protein content and enzymatic activities. Beyond signalling increased oxidative stress, the altered function of RBCs is characterized by reduced export of NO bioactivity regulated by increased arginase activity. Of further importance, the altered function of RBCs has important implications for several cardiovascular disease conditions. RBCs have been shown to induce endothelial dysfunction and to increase cardiac injury during ischaemia-reperfusion in diabetes mellitus. Finally, this new knowledge has led to novel therapeutic possibilities to intervene against cardiovascular disease by targeting signalling in the RBC. These novel data open up an entirely new view on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms behind the c...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. It leads to distressing and expensive clinical sequelae such as foot ulceration, leg amputation, and neuropathic pain (painful-DPN). Unfortunately, DPN is often diagnosed late when irreversible nerve injury has occurred and its first presentation may be with a diabetic foot ulcer. Several novel diagnostic techniques are available which may supplement clinical assessment and aid the early detection of DPN. Moreover, treatments for DPN and painful-DPN are limited. Only tight glucose control in type 1 diabetes has robust evidence in re...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Administration of CoQ10 for 3 months in T1DM pediatric patients was well tolerated but had no favorable effect on ED or metabolic parameters. PMID: 31942840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research - Category: Nutrition Tags: Int J Vitam Nutr Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: It is very important for public health that the current EU standards for rkedly lowered so that health risks can be further reduced, in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO. PMID: 31941576 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Deutsches Arzteblatt International - Category: General Medicine Tags: Dtsch Arztebl Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Our results highlight that interaction of Nr4a1 and LKB1 can mitigate T2DM by activating the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway and inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. This may offer new insight for T2DM treatment. PMID: 31939452 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
In recent years, mediation analysis has become a popular means to identify and quantify pathways linking an exposure to an outcome, thereby elucidating how a particular exposure contributes to the occurrence of a specific outcome. When a mediator is a modifiable risk factor, this opens up new opportunities for interventions to block (part) of the exposure`s effect on the outcome. Recent examples in Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment Health have addressed the mediating effect of wellbeing on the association between type of office and job satisfaction (1) and examined whether workplace social capital contributes to the...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health - Category: Occupational Health Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Conclusion: Services for detecting and managing DR can be successfully integrated into the existing public health system.
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: People with T2DM presenting at eye clinics in India have high rates of diabetic retinopathy and vision loss. Cataract is a very common occurrence. Advocacy, infrastructure strengthening, and human resource development are the key to address the growing threats of T2DM and eye care in India.
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy was prevalent in 1/3rd and sight-threatening DR in 1/5th of people with T2DM presenting at eye-care facilities in this pan-India facility-based study. The duration of diabetes was the strongest predictor for retinopathy.
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: RVO is a frequent finding in people with T2DM. History of stroke carries the highest risk followed by HTN. The management of people with T2DM and RVO must also include comanagement of all associated systemic conditions.
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
Umesh C Behera, Harsha Bhattacharjee, Taraprasad Das, Clare Gilbert, G V S Murthy, R Rajalakshmi, Hira B Pant, on behalf of the SPEED study group Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2020 68(13):32-36 Purpose: To estimate the proportion of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and glaucoma in a facility-based cross-sectional observational study in India. Methods: All people received a comprehensive eye examination. Glaucoma-specific examinations included applanation tonometry, optic disc and cup evaluation, and stereo biomicroscopy in all people; gonioscopy and visual field testing in glaucoma suspects. The International...
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
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