Tumor Biology and Multidisciplinary Strategies of Oligometastasis in Gastrointestinal Cancers

Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Yue Zhao, Jiahui Li, Dai Li, Zhefang Wang, Jiangang Zhao, Xiaolin Wu, Qiye Sun, Peter Ping Lin, Patrick Plum, Menglong Zhou, Zhen Zhang, Hans Schlösser, Peter J. Nelson, Christiane J. BrunsAbstractMore than 70% of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are diagnosed with metastases, leading to poor prognosis. For some cancer patients with limited sites of metastatic tumors, the term oligometastatic disease (OMD) has been coined as opposed to systemic polymetastasis (PMD) disease. Stephan Paget first described an organ-specific pattern of metastasis in 1889, now known as the "seed and soil" theory where distinct cancer types are found to metastasize to different tumor-specific sites. Our understanding of the biology of tumor metastasis and specifically the molecular mechanisms driving their formation are still limited, in particular, as it relates to the genesis of oligometastasis. In the following review, we discuss recent advances in general understanding of this metastatic behavior including the role of specific signaling pathways, various molecular features and biomarkers, as well as the interaction of carcinoma cells with their tissue microenvironments (both primary and metastatic niches). The unique features that underlie OMD provide potential targets for localized therapy. As it relates to clinical practice, OMD is emerging as treatable with surgical resection and/or othe...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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The molecular weight of methotrexate (MTX) makes cutaneous penetration difficult. Oxygen flow could enhance the skin permeation of MTX diluted in the LP3 carrier system. This pilot study aims to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerance of oxygen-flow-administered (OFA)-LP3-MTX3% for treating superficial skin cancers. Patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC)(n=12), extramammary Paget ’s disease (EMPD)(n=5), mycosis fungoides classic type (CMF) (n=10) and folliculotropic (FMF) (n=6) were included in the study and were treated with 4 weekly applications of OFA-LP3-MTX3%.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Vulvar malignancies represent a serious gynecologic health concern, especially given the increasing incidence over the past several decades. Squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma are common subtypes, although other neoplasms such as basal cell carcinoma and Paget ’s disease of the vulva may be seen. Many vulvar cancers are initially misdiagnosed as inflammatory conditions, delaying diagnosis and worsening prognosis. It is essential that dermatologists are familiar with characteristic findings for each malignancy in order to ensure appropriate diagnosis and management.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsBreast cancer with concomitant PD was associated with more aggressive tumor characteristics and worse survival outcomes. The HR status, HER2 status, and combined molecular subtype could not affect the prognosis of breast cancer with PD. Moreover, a portion of the PD ‚ÄźDCIS cases were invasive breast cancer cases that required special treatment.
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Conclusions Lymphatic vessels, like blood vessels, are a highly interactive surface for cells of the immune system, and through the use of chemokines and their receptors can coordinate key interactions. These pathways can control the entry and function of particular immune subsets in a number of pathological conditions. Nonetheless LECs have distinct patterns of chemokine secretion and expression of chemokine receptors that distinguish them from the blood vessel system and mediate distinct roles and responses. The abundance and diversity of the chemokine family point to the likelihood that a plethora of novel chemokine fu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundAdnexal carcinomas are rare and heterogeneous skin tumors, for which no standard treatments exist for locally advanced or metastatic tumors.Aim of the studyTo evaluate the expression of PD-L1 and CD8 in adnexal carcinomas, and to study the association between PD-L1 expression, intra-tumoral T cell CD8+ infiltrate, and metastatic evolution.Materials and methodsEighty-three adnexal carcinomas were included. Immunohistochemistry using anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (E1L3N and 22C3) and CD8 was performed. PD-L1 expression in tumor and immune cells, and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density were a...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of vulvar preinvasive lesions, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. There is an emphasis on sentinel lymph node dissection for early stage disease and advances in chemoradiation for late-stage disease. A brief review of vulvar Paget disease is also included.
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics - Category: OBGYN Authors: Source Type: research
Anal canal cancer occasionally accompanies extramammary Paget disease. Although most of them are squamous cell carcinoma, anal canal adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features accompanying secondary extramamm...
Source: BMC Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare malignancy of the skin. Because of the scarcity of the cases, genomic alterations in EMPD are poorly characterized. To address this issue, we have interrogated 39 EMPD samples and patients blood with exome sequencing. The mutational load of EMPD was moderately high; the median prevalence of somatic mutations was above 3 mutations per megabase, a number comparable to the one of kidney renal cell carcinoma. Our study identified several putative driver events.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Carcinogenesis and Cancer Genetics Source Type: research
DISCUSSION: An ectopic breast, present in 6 % of the population, is often ignored, despite being subject to the same diseases as anatomical breasts: it is at the origin of 0.6 % of breast cancers. Paget's disease is a rare in situ adenocarcinoma comprising fewer than 3 % of cases of breast cancer. It is extremely rare in ectopic breast. Ours is only the fourth reported case in the literature. This case is original because of the lack of objective clinical signs. Subjective symptoms such as pain, tingling, burning sensation and pruritus related to the supernumerary breast must be taken into consideration in o...
Source: Annales de Dermatologie et de Cenereologie - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Ann Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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