Achievements and futures of immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer

AbstractNon-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been threatening human health for years. Cytotoxicity-based chemotherapy seems to reach plateau in NSCLC treatment. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1/L1) axis are to provide long-term survival benefits for wild-type advanced NSCLC patients with acceptable adverse effects. Though beneficiary population is limited from monotherapy, combination strategies are expanding indicators. Retrospective evidences suggested ICIs are also potentially useful for brain metastasis. Furthermore, the combination of ICIs and surgery are to prolong progression free survival time for local advanced patients. Additionally, novel agents targeting in immune checkpoints other than PD-1/L1 demonstrated potential values in anticancer immunity. Herein, we summarize the novel therapies of checkpoint inhibitors in NSCLC treatment and some other potential immunotherapy to provide a conspectus for novel immunotherapy in NSCLC and perspective for the future in anti-cancer treatment.
Source: Experimental Hematology and Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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This case report highlights that multidisciplinary treatment planning is critical for stage IIIb –IV non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in the era of highly effective treatments, including chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, which may demonstrate treatment‐free remission (TFR) even in highly selected advanced lung cancer patients with poly‐metastases, a nd we need more information about the association between each genetic alteration and the significance of salvage surgery. The prognosis of stage IVb non ‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with multiple distant metastase...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Authors: Bagley SJ, Talento S, Mitra N, Meropol NJ, Cohen RB, Langer CJ, Vachani A Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in targeted therapy and immunotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), carboplatin/pemetrexed/bevacizumab remains a commonly used first-line regimen. However, it is unknown whether the addition of bevacizumab to carboplatin/pemetrexed improves overall survival (OS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using nationally representative curated electronic health record data from Flatiron Health, we performed a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with advanced nonsquamous NS...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our WGCNA analysis identified candidate prognostic biomarkers for further basic and clinical researches. Introduction Breast cancer is a frequently diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death among females around the world, accounting for 24% of cancer diagnoses and 15% of cancer deaths in females. According to Global Cancer Statistics 2018, there will be nearly 2.1 million new cases diagnosed globally, with ~62 thousand deaths. The incident rates of breast cancer increased in most developing countries during last decades, resulting from a combination of social and economic factors, incl...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data supports that never/ever smoker patients with small-cell lung cancer have better prognosis compared to their smoker counterparts. Further, patients with never/ever smoking history who present with small-cell lung cancer have a different mutation profile compared with smokers, including a high frequency of EGFR, MET, and SMAD4 mutations. Further studies are required to assess whether the differential mutation profile is a consequence of a diverse pathological mechanism for disease onset. Introduction Lung cancer is the most common neoplasia worldwide. Aside from the high incidence, lung cancer a...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVEConcurrent use of anti-PD-1 therapies with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have been shown to be beneficial for survival and local lesional control in melanoma patients with brain metastases. It is not known, however, if immunotherapy (IT) confers the same outcome advantage in lung cancer patients with brain metastases treated with SRS.METHODSThe authors retrospectively reviewed 85 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases who were treated with SRS between January 2006 and December 2016. Thirty-nine PD-L1 antibody-positive patients received anti-PD-1 therapy with SRS (IT g...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
Authors: Melosky B, Cheema P, Agulnik J, Albadine R, Bebb DG, Blais N, Burkes R, Butts C, Card PB, Chan AMY, Hirsh V, Ionescu DN, Juergens R, Morzycki W, Poonja Z, Sangha R, Tehfe M, Tsao MS, Vincent M, Xu Z, Liu G Abstract Background: Inhibition of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (alk) oncogenic driver in advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (nsclc) improves survival. In 2015, Canadian thoracic oncology specialists published a consensus guideline about the identification and treatment of ALK-positive patients, recommending use of the alk inhibitor crizotinib in the first line. New scientific literature warrants a...
Source: Current Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Curr Oncol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvaluate safety and efficacy of newer systemic therapies for intracranial metastases (IM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) when given alone and with concurrent radiation therapy (RT) and determine which patients with IM may benefit from upfront systemic therapy while withholding RT.Recent FindingsIn NSCLC, chemotherapy regimens are associated with approximately 20% intracranial overall response rates (ORRs) and immunotherapies 30 –50% intracranial ORRs. However, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies for EGFR-mutated patients provide ORRs ranging from 50 to 90%. Prospective data sug...
Source: Current Respiratory Care Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
This article summarizes the latest clinical trials concerning the use of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapies and immunotherapy in lung cancer patients, with particular consideration of brain lung cancer metastasis prevention. The literature search was undertaken via PubMed and EMBASE searches and relevant articles are included in this review. Expert Commentary: The recent data supports that EGFR-TKIs and ALK inhibitors are clinically relevant for first-line treatment to prevent and treat CNS metastases in molecularly-selected NSCLC patients. In the future, high hopes for the prevention of CNS metasta...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research
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