Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 773: A Methodology for Determining Which Diseases Warrant Care in a High-Level Containment Care Unit

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 773: A Methodology for Determining Which Diseases Warrant Care in a High-Level Containment Care Unit Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11090773 Authors: Theodore J. Cieslak Jocelyn J. Herstein Mark G. Kortepeter Angela L. Hewlett Although the concept of high-level containment care (HLCC or ‘biocontainment’), dates back to 1969, the 2014–2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) brought with it a renewed emphasis on the use of specialized HLCC units in the care of patients with EVD. Employment of these units in the United States and Western Europe resulted in a significant decrease in mortality compared to traditional management in field settings. Moreover, this employment appeared to significantly lessen the risk of nosocomial transmission of disease; no secondary cases occurred among healthcare workers in these units. While many now accept the wisdom of utilizing HLCC units and principles in the management of EVD (and, presumably, of other transmissible and highly hazardous viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as those caused by Marburg and Lassa viruses), no consensus exists regarding additional diseases that might warrant HLCC. We propose here a construct designed to make such determinations for existing and newly discovered diseases. The construct examines infectivity (as measured by the infectious dose needed to infect 50% of a given population (ID50)), communicability (as measured by the reproductive number (R0)), and h...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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Abstract In this two-part series of reviews, we have invited experts in their fields to contribute articles on the status of vaccine research and development for emerging pathogens. This topic has been brought into sharp focus in recent years following significant outbreaks of viral diseases such as those causing severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as devastating outbreaks of diseases caused by the Ebola, Marburg, Zika and Lassa fever viruses, to name only a few examples. Additionally, bacterial infections leading to bubonic and pneumonic plague, most notably in Madagasc...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research
At the close of the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola crisis, the Paul G. Allen Foundation identified diagnostic gaps as one of the major deficiencies that had contributed to the outbreak’s spread. “The standard diagnostic tests that exist are very good, but they’re hard to do out in the field in the middle of an outbreak like we saw in West Africa,” said John Connor, a virologist at the Boston University National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory (NEIDL). Instead, samples need to be sent to a facility capable of running the tests, which means it could...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
Source: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa. Published: 12/2018. This 96-page report is a collection of short reports on selected outbreaks that occurred in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region between 2016 and 2018, and which were successfully controlled. This edition of the Compendium covers 19 outbreaks, which occurred in 15 countries, presented in chronological order. Outbreaks include Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Likati, May 2017), Marburg fever in Uganda, dengue fever in Senegal, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Mauritania, influenza A H1N1 in Ghana, Lass...
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:The Lancet Author(s): David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay Background Predictin...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
By Drs. David Niesel and Norbert Herzog Sometimes I have to remind myself we are in the 21st Century when I hear that infectious diseases are a leading cause of death among adults and remain the leading cause of death in children. While most of these deaths occur in the developing world, a significant number occur in middle income countries. Vaccines are the most cost effective medical intervention known to prevent infectious diseases. An effective vaccine can significantly reduce the mortality associated with them. However, while we have come a long way, the reality is that we have relatively few effective vaccines. O...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
On 20 April 2016, the National IHR Focal Point for Germany informed WHO that a previously reported case of Lassa fever in Germany has fully recovered and been discharged from hospital in Frankfurt. This secondary case was an employee of the funeral home tasked with handling the primary case’s corpse on 2 March (see DON posted 23 March).
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: risk assessment [subject], travel [subject], travel and health, air travel, viral haemorrhagic fever [subject], haemorrhagic, crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever, ebola haemorrhagic fever, marburg haemorrhagic fever, Disease outbreak news [doctype], European Source Type: news
Abstract: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)/Doctors Without Borders, an International Medical Humanitarian Non Governmental Organization, has an experience of 20 years in intervening in Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Outbreaks (Marburg-, Ebola-, Lassa-fever- outbreaks). Healthcare providers caring for Ebola-, Marburg-, and, in a lesser extend, Lassa-patients, are, next to family and friends of patients, at highest risk of getting infected by those diseases, as they are most likely to come in contact with infectious blood and/or body fluids of VHF patients.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Type: Invited Presentation Source Type: research
On 25 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point of Benin notified WHO of an outbreak of Lassa fever. The outbreak was initially detected on 21 January following reports of unexplained fever within a cluster of health workers from the district of Tchaourou, Borgou department. On 3 January, these health workers provided care to a patient suffering from haemorrhagic fever.
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: management [subject], leadership, risk assessment [subject], viral haemorrhagic fever [subject], haemorrhagic, crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever, ebola haemorrhagic fever, marburg haemorrhagic fever, African Region [region], Benin [country], Disease outbre Source Type: news
Abstract Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially beco...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Discussion These events make up the beginning of the EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone, the third major step of the virus, after Guinea and Liberia, towards developing the largest EVD epidemic in history. The identification on May 25thof the first confirmed case of EVD in Sierra Leone prompted local health authorities to immediately conduct extensive investigations, searching for suspected cases and to inform and engage the international community such as the WHO or Medecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in all response activities. Despite previous in-country experience with Lassa fever, a rapid response by well-informed field t...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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