The airway microbiota in children newly diagnosed with bronchiectasis largely retains its diversity

There is a great deal of interest in the airway microbiota, its diversity and the role of specific microbial taxa in the pathophysiology of lung disease [1]. Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is a significant public health problem in many countries, including New Zealand, where prevalence is high and morbidity and mortality are substantial [2–4]. A role for bacteria in the pathophysiology of bronchiectasis is widely accepted but poorly characterised due to inherent difficulties with lower airway sampling, especially in young children. Culture-based studies demonstrate associations with Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae in children [2, 5], and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in adults and those with severe disease [6, 7]. Culture-independent methods have revealed complex airway microbial communities with differences between children and adults with bronchiectasis, and between adults with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis [8].
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

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Poshmaal Dhar1 and Julie McAuley2* 1Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia The family of cell surface (cs-) mucins are constitutively expressed at the cell surface by nearly all epithelial cells, beneath the gel-mucin layer. All cs-mucin family members have structural features that enable them to act as a releasable decoy barrier to mucosal pathogens, by providing ligands for pathogen binding and the ability to shed the bound extracellular domain. Due ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract RATIONALE: Historical studies suggest that airway infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) initiates with Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae with later emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aspergillus species are regarded as relatively infrequent, late occurring infections. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and change in prevalence of early lower airway infections in a modern cohort of children with CF. METHODS: All infants diagnosed with CF after newborn screening, participating in the AREST-CF cohort study between 2000-2018, were included. Participants prospectively underwent broncho...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
ABSTRACTBronchiectasis has received increased attention recently, including an emphasis on preventing infective exacerbations that are associated with disease progression and lung function decline. While there are several bacteria and viruses associated with bronchiectasis, licensed vaccines are only currently available forStreptococcus pneumoniae,Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae protein D as a conjugate in a pneumococcal vaccine),Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. The evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of these vaccines in both preventing and managing bronchiectasis in chil...
Source: Respirology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Invited Review Series: Paediatric and Adult Bronchiectasis Source Type: research
We report unique sets of volatile markers for CF relevant bacteria detected with SESI-HRMS.Funding: ERS LTRF 2016
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data provide indirect evidence that PBB might be due to biofilm formation.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Paediatric bronchology Source Type: research
Chronic airway inflammation and infection drive morbidity and mortality among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus predominate in children, the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa increases as patients age. Other bacteria, including species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), are also more prevalent among adults with CF. Species within the Bcc accelerate lung function decline and can trigger development of “cepacia syndrome,” both before and after lung transplantation.
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of invasive Hib infections observed in the post-vaccination era in people with SCD living in high-income countries. Therefore, despite the absence of evidence from RCTs, it is expected that Hib conjugate vaccines may be useful in children affected with SCD, especially in African countries where there is a high prevalence of the disease. The implementation of childhood immunisation schedules, including universal Hib conjugate vaccination, may substantially improve the survival of children with SCD living in low-income countries. We currently lack data to evalu...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Abstract BackgroundEndobronchial suppuration is present in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis (CF). However, no studies have directly compared bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings across these conditions within a single center using the same techniques and with shared community pathogens. AimTo determine; (i) the bronchoscopic findings and BAL microbiology and cellularity among children with these conditions and; (ii) the relationship between bacterial pathogens, airway cellularity and aberrant macroscopic bronchoscopic findings. MethodsWe retrospectiv...
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE: RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS Source Type: research
Conclusions: PCD patients have elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in the nasal cavity, which are associated with bacterial infection. Further investigation is needed to determine the cause of a blunted IL-8 response ex vivo.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Paediatric Respiratory Infection and Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The MBR will contribute to the understanding of the etiology of bronchiectasis and will serve as a powerful resource for planning the future therapeutic solutions in the era of drug resistant germs.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research
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